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Code Switching in Spanish - Annotated Bibliography Example

3 pages
567 words
Harvey Mudd College
Type of paper: 
Annotated bibliography
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Bishop, M., & Peterson, M. (2011). Comprende Code Switching?. Journal of Advertising Research: Young Mexican-Americans Responses to Language Alternation in Print Advertising, 51(4), pp.648-659.

In their study on code-switching, Bishop, & Peterson (2011) intended to determine the consumer's perception and reaction to code-switching in advertisements. In most advertisements, audience targeting has involved localizing language or contextualizing the advertisement using a foreign language to appeal to the local audiences using local dialects while still maintaining a modem language. Targeted advertisement involves code-switching, and this is why it is common to find an anguish advertisement with some Chinese or other ethnic languages inserted within the advertisements. It is also common to find a Chinese or Japanese advertisement with some English words. Altering or inserting foreign words in an advertises done in a socio-ethnic dialect is therefore referred to as code-switching. The English words are intended to create a perception of modernity and sophistication while the ethnic dialect is meant to appeal to the audiences.

By analyzing the response of young Mexican American (age18-30), the researchers argued that code switching is mediated code switching advertising structures and advertising response. They also argued that attitudes toward code-switching are influenced by the direction of the code-switching in the advertisements and the medium in which the code switched advertisement is placed. Additionally, they stated that attitudes towards code-switching influence advertisement involvement using a sample of 107 participants (54 females; 53 males) in the Dallas/Ft. Worth, Texas, area [Fs < 1; p > 0.05].)


Advertisers usually use code-switching o change and influence perception or to acknowledge multiple attitudes in the bilingual. Having an English to Spanish code switching direction in and advertisements does not result in more favorable attitudes towards code-switching at p = 0.05. The researcher also found that having an all-Spanish medium for the advisement can negatively affect aptitudes towards code-switching. Therefore, this finding implies the medium as the less favorable attitude towards cod switching can easily be triggered whenever a code-switched advertisement in placed within an ethnic medium advertisements.

Additionally, the researchers found out those attitudes towards code-switching can positively influence the bilingual consumers' involvement with the code switched advertisements. Therefore, if advertisers want their consumers to be more involved with their code switched advisements, the advertisers must aim to influence attitudes towards code-switching. The fourth hypothesis was as consumers become more involved with and advertisements, their service quality expectation also increases as advisements involvement has a significant effect on service quality expectations. Finally, the researchers found out that advertising involvement has a direct effect on favorable intention toward that brand that sponsored the advertisement(standardized path coefficient of 0.38)

Personal opinion

Because most advertisers are brands that would want their consumers to have a favorable attitudes towards a brand, it is advisable for companies to understand the content of the advertising including the targeted population, the medium of use and their attitudes towers cod switching. Never the less, I find the results only acceptable about the print medium but this perception and attitude might change if the cases were the digital medium such as television advertisements. Future research should focus on the responses of the of the young Mexican-Americans in response to the television advertising. Because the people's perceived relevance of the advertisement based on their needs, values, and interest varies.



Bishop, M. and Peterson, M. (2011). Comprende Code Switching?. Journal of Advertising Research: Young Mexican-Americans Responses to Language Alternation in Print Advertising, 51(4), pp.648-659.


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