Discrimination refers to the disparity in treatment centred on harmful movements against a marginalised group. Discrimination can occur based on various ways, for instance, age, race, religion, gender among other facets. Perception can arise in an individual or institutional level. Individual bias refers to the differential treatment based on harmful actions one person to another. The adverse treatment occurs between two individuals and the only people who can fix the issue are the people involved. On the other hand, institutional discrimination refers to the perception of an individual or group of people by the entire society. The bias could be intentional or unintentional.in most case the discrimination emanates from stereotypes that held by the discriminating organisation against an individual or group of individual.
The difference between individual discrimination and institutional discrimination it that individual involves differences between only two people and it can be quickly resolved while institutional entails a society against an individual or group of individuals the difference is difficult to solve because it involves a large group of people with personal differences and opinions.
A perfect example of institutional discrimination is where an entire school gives differential treatment to a group of minority students, for instance, a school where African Americans are a minority and they are negatively treated by the entire class it is an institutional discrimination because it entails a whole society against a minority group of people. On the other hand, an example of individual bias is where a disabled person who is qualified is denied a job by a hiring manager in favour of one who is not eligible and not disabled. It is an individual discrimination because it only involves two people.
Rape culture is a sociological thought used to define a situation where rape is prevalent and put on a regular footing due to public view about gender and sexuality. Some of the standard features of rape culture include slut accusing, casualty blaming, denying the harm caused by rape on the victim, erotic objectification among others. The most affected victims of rape culture include women because in the old times they were considered to be second-class citizens. Rape culture can be traced back to the 1800's where rape cases by black men on white women were so rampant, and a law was passed that the penalty for raping a white woman was death or castration but if a black woman was raped it was legal. It was the case in the United States of American during the American civil war. The term rape culture was coined by feminists in the1970 in an attempt to educate people on the prevalence of rape.
Rape culture has dramatically affected the women because they were considered as second class citizens and any case of rape was considered normal. Besides, it has led to increased rates of unwanted pregnancy and contraction of disease by the victims. Also, the loss of dignity among the victims of rape because they are stigmatized and viewed otherwise by the society.
Inequality refers to the difference in social status, opportunities and prosperity among other issues between people or groups of people. Schools can reinforce disparities through how students are treated based on their affluence, those who come from humble backgrounds suffer because they cannot march the standards of their peers. It can happen where those that can afford money to pay for extra tutorials may tend to perform better than those who come from needy families. Similarly, those who are from the humble background are not able to sufficient reading and study materials, and they only rely on school libraries to accomplish their tasks while they are still rated with their peers who are financially better. On the other hand, they are those that have personal cars and drive to school while those who do not have been forced to walk or board public means. Times can get late to school this way they will not be at par with those who arrive at school early, they miss some classes and catching up with the others becomes difficult.
Gender has been a controversial issue since time immemorial and parents have taught their children aspects of a specific sexuality from a tender age. Research indicates that's parents expect their children to behave in a manner suggesting their gender identity barely twenty-four hours after birth. Parents have molded their children along gender activities, for instance, a given type of gender is dressed in certain clothes that are assumed to be for them. Some colors are associated with sex too, and parents have put them into practice and cloth children in colors representing their gender. At the age of two years, children already know about their gender identity and play games that belong to their sex. Similarly, they teach their children roles that are associated with their gender for instance girls are taught how to cook with their mothers and with time they start identifying themselves with feminists.
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