Desbiens, N. A., & Vidaillet, H. J. (2010). Discrimination against international medical graduates in the United States residency program selection process. BMC medical education, 10(1), 5.
Desbiens & Vidaillet (2010) reviewed the licensing of graduate physicians in the United States through the residency program, with an emphasis on the graduates who have studied in foreign countries. The study found that a residency program is just a protection tool that shields the United States graduates against those graduates from international schools. The residency program ensures that American graduates are given priority in employment while the foreign graduates are considered for remaining slots.
I chose this source because it explains how United States use residency program to protect their graduates against competition for jobs from foreign graduates. It supports the point that United States discriminates foreign education as it fuels competition for U.S jobs and can leave their graduates jobless. It supports the thesis point that America has discriminated foreign education due to anticipated competition.
Halperin, E. C., & Goldberg, R. B. (2016). Offshore medical schools are buying clinical clerkships in US hospitals: the problem and potential solutions. Academic Medicine, 91(5), 639-644.
Halperin & Goldberg (2016) examined the threats experienced by United States medical education. The authors learned that for-profit Caribbean medical schools purchase rotation slots at the United States hospitals for their students. As a result, they learned that offshore schools are monetizing the process of training physicians which is against the rules of training physicians. They also found that offshore schools enroll many students with lower GPA as well as lower medical college admission test scores as compared to minimum requirements for enrolment to medical schools in U.S.
I chose this source because it explains malpractices committed by foreign schools. I will then use this source to support my thesis point that one of the reasons why foreign education is discriminated is because of lower standards in foreign schools which consequently means that graduates do not meet high-quality standards for U.S jobs such as medicine.
Labonte, R., Packer, C., & Klassen, N. (2006). Managing health professional migration from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a stakeholder inquiry into policy options. Human Resources for Health, 4(1), 22.
Labonte, Packer & Klassen (2006) conducted an inquiry through interviewing various stakeholders in health to the sector with the aim of learning about the policy options to control migration of health professionals from other countries to Canada.
I chose this source because it explains some of the reasons why America has discriminated foreign-trained medical doctors. It explains the basis of the discriminatory residency program for recruiting physicians. In particular, this source will help in explaining the argument those discriminatory practices such as residency program help in creating barriers to foreign doctors to reduce their influx into U.S.
Foster, L. P. (2008). Foreign-trained doctors in Canada: Cultural contingency and cultural democracy in the medical profession. International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 1(1).
Foster (2008) argue that medical professionals in the United States are culturally regulated to disadvantage foreign-trained as well as foreign-born professionals. The targeted are mainly non-white and non-European immigrant practitioners. The author attempts to show that discriminating foreign education lacks a basis; rather it has been culturally stimulated with mere claims of maintaining quality standards in the medical field.
I chose this source to support the argument that discrimination against foreign education is motivated by the organizational cultural believe that foreign-trained candidates may not meet the quality standards as required in the United States. I will use the source to show that the medical industry, and probably other industries, discriminate graduates from foreign schools on the premise of sustaining quality among their organizations.
Mulan (2011) Foreign-trained doctors kept out of practice in the US. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from https://www.pri.org/stories/2011-04-14/foreign-trained-doctors-kept-out-practice-us
Mulan (2011) argues that a graduate in almost every country is the product of the tax base of that country. Since governments invest in the education of their elites, they expect a return on their investment. As such, it is only appropriate for the United States to employ their graduates. The author went ahead to argue that the United States should not depend on other countries to train their professionals. Also, hiring graduates from other countries is like denying those countries their right to expect a return on their investment in the form of government subsidies that went to the education of those professionals.
I chose this source because it supports my thesis point which argues that foreign graduates are not employed in U.S over U.S graduates as the government expects the return on investment from their trained professionals.
Bauder, H. (2013). "Brain abuse," or the devaluation of immigrant labor in Canada. Antipode, 35(4), 699-717.
Brauder (2013) conducted a study to establish why foreign credentials were not recognized in the United States and the reason for dismissal of foreign experiences. The author found that the dismissal and no recognition of foreign credentials and work experience were fuelled by the fear of immigrants occupying top jobs in the country. The finding was based on the data gathered from interviews with employers and institutional administrators.
The reason I have chosen this article is the fact that it explains why United States employers and institutional administrators discriminate academic credentials and work experiences for immigrants from other countries. The source will be useful when explaining the point that the United States discriminates education of other countries because they do not want everyone to come and work in America.
Pawliuk, R. (2014, August 04). Opinion: Canada shuts the door on Canadian doctors who go to foreign medical schools. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from http://www.vancouversun.com/news/Opinion Canada, shuts Canadian door doctors foreign medical schools/9714934/story.html
Pawliuk (2014) argues that has allowed universities to have a bigger say over who is granted entry-level training jobs, instead of leaving such a dispensation to the respective agencies. For example, the medical universities have control over which candidates are trained as physicians by the College of Physicians as resident physicians. As a result, the author argues that the universities have discriminated students who attended foreign medical schools. The universities think that foreign graduates are less trained and qualified (Pawliuk, 2014).
I chose this source because it explains how discrimination of foreign education is implanted in the United State's important agencies such as College of physicians. The source will help in explaining the argument that the United States protects their graduates against competition from foreign graduates. It will show how universities participate directly in protecting their graduates against the competition.
Pittman, P., Davis, C., Shaffer, F., Herrera, C. N., & Bennett, C. (2014). Perceptions of employment-based discrimination among newly arrived foreign-educated nurses. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 114(1), 26-35.
Pittman et al., (2014) studied the perceptions of the foreign-educated nurses on whether they felt that they were equitably treated in the workplace as compared to the United States educated nurses. The authors found that the foreign-educated nurses, especially those who trained in low-income countries, were not equitably treated as compared to their counterparts who were educated in the U.S. the researchers found that the main reason was the perception of the employers of lower training for the nurses.
The source was chosen to support the argument that the United States discriminates foreign education on the basis that the training in foreign countries, especially low-income countries, is low and the students graduating from those schools are less qualified as compared to those who graduate from United States schools.
Rabben, L. (2013). Credential recognition in the United States for foreign professionals. Migration Policy Institute, 1-17.
Rabben (2013) argues that the United States is decentralized into federal governments leaving it without a single structure to govern professional certification. As a result, confusing and contradicting state or local procedures and rules and examinations for certification are complicated. This means that foreign graduates find challenges having their foreign credentials being certified, consequently being disregarded by the United States authorities.
I selected this source because it explains the challenges that foreign graduates go through in having their academic credentials certified. It will explain how such challenges lead to failure by foreign graduates to certify their credentials and hence cannot be considered for employment in various states and federal governments. It will support the point that decentralized nature of United States government leads to lack of single professional bodies to certify foreign education and regulate occupations in various sectors.
Credentialing of Foreign Degrees for a United States Government Application. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2017, from https://www.state.gov/m/dghr/flo/219100.htm
The paper explains that foreign education transcripts are not accepted when one applies for federal positions. This implies that foreign graduates have to seek evaluation of their credentials through a credential evaluation service that is recognized by the United States Department of Education to be credited towards qualification. The paper further explains that the process is time-consuming and the costs are incurred by the individual seeking accreditation. According to the author, such costs and long procedures expose individuals to discrimination in employment.
I chose this source because it explains discrimination of foreign education by the government of United States through discouraging foreign transcripts unless accredited by credential service. It shows how foreign graduates are disenfranchised by the government that even asks them to bear extra costs for recertification of their papers.
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