Sexual orientation represents a consistent pattern of sexual or romantic attraction, or a combination of the two features, to individuals of the same sex, opposite sex, or to both genders. Hence, this results in the emergence of homosexual, asexual, bisexual, and heterosexual persons in the society. According to Campbell (2013), the origin of sexual orientation is associated with factors such as hormonal, genetic (nature), and even influences from the environmental factors (nurtured). However, I believe that sexual orientation is natural, and depends on the interaction between genetic and hormonal factors.
Biological factors determine sexual orientation. This involves the interaction between prenatal hormones, brain structure, and genes. Genes establish the existence of various characteristics exhibited by individuals. This shows that there are individuals who are naturally lesbians, gays, or bisexuals, due to the presence of these hereditary genes and hormones such as estrogen and androgen, which determine feminine and masculinity in the population respectively. Hence, such chemical compositions can be identified as the primary determinants of sexual orientation. The position held by EveMarie on the interaction between nature and nurture as the determinants of sexual orientation is accurate and presents the broader explanation of its origin (EvaMarie, 2018). However, I vary on the opinion that without nurture there is no nature since the environmental factors only enhance the characteristics determined by nature. My belief on sexual orientation gives me the opportunity to appreciate sexuality, and foster good working relationships with clients holding varying opinions on the topic.
According to Hillman (2017), individuals should acknowledge and appreciate diversity on sexuality among adults, and assist in addressing their challenges such as sexual health and dysfunctions. Additionally, the counselors ought to offer an opportunity for the LGBT members, to relay their sexual problems and concerns (Muzacz & Akinsulure-Smith, 2013). Thus, the counselors should ensure that personal opinion does not affect how they handle their clients in accordance to the guidelines provided by the American Counselling Association (ACA, 2014). In turn, the professionals should also suggest solutions to the LGBT challenges and enhance appreciation of diversity in sexuality, and make them feel like part of the society by reducing chances of discrimination.
ACA. (2014). ACA Code of Ethics for Me. Counseling.org. Retrieved 7 February 2018, from https://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf.
Arien Muzacz, & Adeyinka Akinsulure-Smith (2013) Older Adults and Sexuality: Implications for Counseling Ethnic and Sexual Minority Clients. Journal of Mental Health Counseling: Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 1-14.
Campbell, S. (2013). Sexual health needs and the LGBT community. Nursing Standard, 27(32), 35-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ns2013.04.27.32.35.e7250.
EvaMarie, P. (2018). Sexual Orientation: Nature versus Nurture. Peer analysis.
Hillman, J. (2017). The Sexuality and Sexual Health of LGBT Elders. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 37(1), 13-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/0198-8794.37.13.
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