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Essay Example: Epidemiology of HIV and Breast Cancer in the UK

4 pages
942 words
Harvey Mudd College
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Locally the Directorate of public health works in conjunction with the partners in the health sector that includes. Mental Health services, community nurses, CCG GPs, patient transports, NHS Walking centers, the Health Promotion program and Screening. This partnership helps in the identification of the health levels issues among the resident communities.  This also ensures that every need of the resident communities and individuals are accessible. The various partners have the mandate of looking at the different determinants and factors that lead to a given disease or a trend in the health of the public. For instance, they look into the cause of alcohol abuse and obesity in the resident communities; those affected and measure the incidence of the health problem or the disease (Chung, 2015, p.46). The director of public health is capable of knowing the type of services, facilities, expertise levels needed to control, surveillance, prevention and monitoring of the disease level in the resident community by obtaining knowledge on the prevalence, distribution, and determinants of ill health. The data collected is then taken to the department of health. Financing and advice on the matters of health to the local government officials are given by the health department basing on the needs of Healthcare (Brownson et al., 2017, p.55).

Epidemiology in science and research has been defined as the study of the frequency of an injury or a disease to occur in different groups of people and the reason for the occurrence (Bhopal, 2016, p.7). In this assignment, my focus will be on Breast Cancer and HIV/AIDS in the UK.

Epidemiology of HIV and Breast Cancer in the UK

HIV is a killer virus that claimed lives of many in the UK. However, the UK has a relatively lower number of individuals who are living with HIV compared to the other nations. In 2015, it was approximated that the total number of individuals who are living with HIV in the UK to be about 101,200 people who are above 15 years of age. In 2015 the people who newly diagnosed to be infected with HIV were 6,095. The number of death in the UK due to HIV infection and related infections in the year 2015 was at 594 people (Aghaizu, et al., 2016, p.433). The data below indicates the HIV/AIDS diagnoses and death that were reported in the years 2002 to 2011 in London.

The high number of new infections stands at the rate of about 11.3 % among 100000 people in the UK. The virus in the UK is mainly among the men who are homosexuals and heterosexuals. One among 20 men who are homosexuals within the age group of 15 to 44 is infected with the virus. The number of the infected men who are homosexuals has continued to go high looking at the data from 200 to 2015. The initial infection in 2010 was at 2,860 men who have risen to 3320 men in 2015. In 2014 the newly diagnosed homosexual men between the ages of 25 and 44 made up 67% of all new infections (Punyacharoensin et al., 2015, p.345).

In the year 2015 newly infected heterosexuals added to 2360 of which 1350 were heterosexual women while 1010 were heterosexual men. 51% of the heterosexual males and 60% of women who are heterosexuals that are infected with HIV were found to be in the age bracket of between 25 to 45 years (Aghaizu, et al., 2016, p.436). Below is data on exposure category in London for the new infections.

The total number of individuals living with the HIV that has been getting the ART treatment in the UK has been going higher in the recent the years. The number has increased from a percentage of 80% in the year 2010 to 91% in the year 2014 which is about 85489 people. The coverage treatment with ART varies in age groups. For instance, only 74% of the youth leaving with the virus were on treatment (Aghaizu, et al., 2016, p. 439).

A malignant tumor that begins in the breast cells is known as Breast Cancer. Cancer affects both the males and females though it is rare among the men. In the year 2002 reports showed that seven million people died of cancer and it was estimated that there were about 11 million new cases diagnosed with breast cancer within one year in the world (Bhopal, 2016, p. 46). The morbidity and mortality level is highly affected by cancer in the UK. A fourth of all death in the UK is due to cancer according to the studies done. Cancer determinants are varied with the social and environmental influence, hormonal, genetic influence, radiations, factors of reproduction, diet, predisposition, etc. smoking and alcohol abuse are major determinants of cancer Development (Torre, et al., 2015, p. 101). From the Breast Cancer campaign report an approximate of two million people in the UK are affected by breast cancer. The incidence rate for the men is at 349, and that for the women is at 50,289 every year. The mortality rate caused by breast cancer for the year 2012 was 73 men and 11643 women in the UK. Below is breast cancer statistics for the year 1975 to 2011 in the UK.

Second cancer that is most common among the women is breast cancer. From the 1970s the number of women in the UK affected by breast cancer has been increasing among all the women in all the age groups. The women who are in their 50s to 69 are the most affected in the increasing prevalence of the disease (Fidler, et al., 2017, p. 1582). The increase in incidences in women in the ages of between 65 and 69 in the year 2000 has made the department of health in the UK to extend cancer screening to the other groups of higher age than 64. Cancer has remained a big killer of the members of the society despite all the efforts put in place to try and control and bring down its incidence (Torre, et al., 2015...

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