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Annotated Bibliography on Parent - Teacher Association

7 pages
1779 words
Boston College
Type of paper: 
Annotated bibliography
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Citation Crosnoe, R., & Ansari, A. (2015). Latin American immigrant parents and their children's teachers in US early childhood education programmes. International Journal of Psychology, 50(6), 431-439.

What is the article about? The study investigated the nature and extent of involvement if Latin American immigrant parents in the lives of their young children. The outcome of these investigations would help in elucidating how these teenage children may be integrated or alienated from the educational system. The study premises on the fact that immigrant families have to be supported so that they adapt to the new system and that education is a critical determinant of the childrens future. Assessing parental involvement required was done through a series of processes. The first method involved drawing data on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). The ECLS-B is a national representative sample of US children tracked from birth. The data therein was used to test the hypothesis that the Latin American Immigrants will engage less in the involvement activities in various settings that are emphasized by the U.S school systems while their kids are enrolled in early education programs compared to parents from other racial backgrounds. The study also drew from qualitative data obtained from parents and teachers in a sample of 26 pre-school classrooms serving pupils from different backgrounds in Texas. This qualitative data was significantly used in exploring how the nature of parental involvement in the academic lives of their pre-school children may affect educational development such as blunting their potential rewards. The research fundamentally delved into assessing the extent to which the Latin American immigrant parents in the U.S engage in in their children education. It presented a shift in focus from the traditional elementary and secondary school to early childhood education.

Why was the research performed? The study was conducted in response to the fact that there is an increased immigration between the Latin America and the United States which imply that children from such immigrant families may have challenges in coping with situations in their new environments. It based on the understanding that immigration results in people having to deal with new cultures, traditions and cultural practices that significantly affect their educational life. A clash of civilizations is often familiar after immigration resulting in various effects on preschoolers from immigrant Latino. Therefore, the study addresses the role that Latino parents play in helping their children to cope with the challenge of their new school environments. It also looks at how the Latin American parents can be empowered by the school systems so that they quickly participate in facilitating the acculturation process of their preschoolers. Through such empowerments, it is poised that the Latin American parents attain a new perspective of the teachers who are the real agents of acculturation of the pre-scholars at school hence can work closely for better educational outcomes and ability to cope.


The statistical analysis of data that represents the U.S as a nation showed that Latin American immigrants expressed lower frequency of most home-and community-based involvement behaviors than the parents born in the U.S or born of other foreigner parents. However, the Latin Americans showed higher rates of involvement behaviors requiring participation in the early childhood education programs. Qualitative data drawn from early childhood program in Texas raveled that the Latina Immigrant mother s and the teacher of their children often talked about each other as being partners in facilitating the educational experiences of their children. Nonetheless, the actual interactions between the teachers and the Latin American mothers tended to socialize the later into being more passive recipients of the directives given by the former.


The study operated by the pairing of statistical cross-group comparisons in existing national data with the qualitative of processes within different groups of locally collected data which is an essential tool for assessing social patterns.


The study did not delve into explicitly articulating what should constitute parental involvement in the academic progress of scholars hence does not provide a clear starting point for addressing the plight of Latin American immigrant children in pre-schools

Implications for Practice

The findings point to a critical need for an increased involvement of Latin American immigrants in their childrens early education and consistent work on what such commitment should ideally entail on the part of the parents and teachers who are the primary stakeholder in the academic lives of preschoolers.

Citation Levy, S. A. (2016). Parents, students, and teachers beliefs about teaching heritage histories in public school history classrooms. The Journal of Social studies Research, 40(1), 5-20.

What is the article about? The article presents a qualitative assessment of the expectations and beliefs that parents, students and teachers have regarding teaching of heritage history in the public high schools. The study involved interviewing students from three different heritages, their teachers and parents as a means of obtaining critical insight into the complicated, often silent, relationship. The study was premised on readings about the role that teaching history, historical distance and collective memory or heritage plays in shaping and helping to explicate some of the more complex issues in studying heritage histories. 4 Hmong St. Paul students, their parents and teachers participated in the study. The school in which the study was based is in Minnesota. Participants also included 8 Chinese students, 9 of their parents and their teacher in Elmdale, California. The third category of subjects included 5 Jewish students, 5 of their parents and their teacher in Maple Lake located in Illinois.

Why was the research performed? The study responded to various facts about curriculum used in teaching students within the public schools in the United States. It premised on the fact that teachers are always exhorted to formulate curriculum that is relevant to the lives of the students that they teach. Despite this role, the teachers are not provided with guidance on an already established relevant curriculum. In fact the study focused on the need to establish a curriculum that is more relevant to the student that even teachers. One such disciplines is heritage histories about events or people specific to a given heritage group. Therefore, the study responded to three fundamental question. The first is how the teachers teaching heritage histories should approach the discipline owing to the fact that such narratives are not theoretical but have actually lived experiences by the students. Second, the perception of students and parents on the need to enact heritage history lessons into curriculum. Third how the concept of heritage histories blend with the accepted and established purposes for history education in the United States public schools.


The research findings shows that the three stakeholder groups from different schools and regions of the United States believe that classroom that teaches in the public school presents a suitable environment for incorporating teaching of lessons on heritage histories. The study identifies that despite the ideality of history classroom in teaching herniate, there are various factors that complicates its teaching. These challenges include the need to place heritage history narratives within a broad curriculum and mainstream narratives, the ways in which teachers chose to incorporate the heritage histories into their standard classroom curriculum and the dynamic nature of the historical and generational distance.


The incorporation of three heritage groups into the study improves its reliability since diverse samples in cross sectional studies are more helpful in aching reliable perspectives.

Using the three group from three distinct geographical regions offer important insights into how different communities and populations envision the relationship between parents, students, and teachers regarding social studies curriculum.


Using interviews with questions having already postulated answers undermined the reliability of findings. In qualitative studies, the researcher should endeavor not to propose responses to the respondents that they give their pure opinions, perspectives and ideas about a specific issue. An interview question such as Do you think it's important for the Vietnam War to be taught in your child's history class? Why/why not? already suggested the historical event being addressed hence missed the merit of qualitative studies.

Implications for Practice

Based on the findings, it is imperative that teachers of history need to constantly reevaluate their teaching of heritage histories in light of the changing generational forces of the heritage societies. They also have to be deliberate and explicit about their commitment and desire to include the stories of their students within the formal classroom curriculum.

Citation Iqbal, Z., Ahmad, M., & Rauf, M. (2013). Role of Parent Teacher Association in Federal Education Institutions. Putaj Humanities & Social Sciences, 20.

What is the article about? It is essential for communities to have enough opportunities in an education system to enhance sharing of valuable conducted experiences and active participation. The Parent Teachers Association (PTA) is usually involved in the utilization of funds, administrative problems, and academic decision making in schools. However, there is a growing concern in the developing countries of quality education through improving the participation of the community as they can help improve service delivery in schools. Therefore, this article analyzes the responsibilities, active participation, and the role of PTA regarding functional, pedagogical, and structural aspects of the system. The study was conducted in 406 educational institutions, and all the presidents of PAT were given questionnaires that consisted of functional, pedagogical, and structural aspects. Additionally, 230 of the 406 filled their questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed by calculating ANOVA, standard deviation, and mean, which revealed that the PTA presidents needed a uniform educational system in the Islamabad Capital Territory.

Why was the research performed? The research aimed to analyze the functions and role of Parent Teacher Association about functional, pedagogical, and structural of the community. The study was also conducted to find how it has worked in satisfying the community.


According to the data analysis of this research, it is evident that the presidents of the PTA need a uniform education system as they feel that various tiers in the current education system cause an embarrassment to people. Additionally, they were satisfied with the timely delivery of the education policy, textbooks, and physical facilities. However, they were not happy with the methodologies, existing curriculum, and teaching facilities, as it does not fulfill the needs of the society. From the research, it was also found out that the PTA is representing the community fully by engaging in the administrative problems, academic decision making, and utilization of funds.


The information gotten from the other authors were well cited in the research. The article also showed the roles that the PTA plays its vital role lively, and this is also supported by the previous authors as cited in the research study.


The study only used questionnaires when conducting the research. The use of other methods of collecting dat...

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