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Research Paper in Psychology

7 pages
1769 words
Sewanee University of the South
Type of paper: 
Research paper
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Vignette four: Paula's Irrational Beliefs and Self-Defeating Attitudes

After listening to Paula's beliefs, it is evident that she has an issue with her self-confidence, she has made her self-believe that she cannot manage to be anything if she has no one to approve of what she does due to this she has become emotionally dependent and feels the fear of being unable to sustain her emotions by herself. Due to these facts, she is afraid of losing Albert and in the process, she holds him so close in return demands a lot from him without her conscious awareness of this behavior. The fear of not having anyone there with her makes visualize the other side of life as a horrifying place (Beck, Davis & Freeman, 2015). The treatment she received from her parents as well has greatly affected her personality due to lack of any approval from them hence she feels within her having Albert as a self-achievement towards at least something in life and losing this means she loses everything. An analysis of this and then approaching her and talking to her about what it means to have someone in life is the most important part. First, let her understand this let her learn to love her self first and learn first to get approval for anything she does from in within herself before looking for this in someone else. After having this in mind, it becomes easier for her to let someone else in her life and being able to accept them for who they are. Appreciating what she receives and valuing the intentions of this person (Skodlar et al., 2013). From the brief introduction, one realizes that Albert does a lot as per him, but this seems as nothing inform of Paula's eyes. Appreciating the little things first makes one do more. Let Paula know this. Let her learn to appreciate what she receives and through this Albert will gradually improve on what he offers her.

Vignette Four: REBT Therapy and Alberts Irrational Beliefs

First Albert needs to understand his partner and identify her weaknesses. Paula has had a rough upbringing as identified so he should embrace the fact that she expects a lot from him. This will psychologically prepare him. After this then he should learn the minor things that really play a major role in Paula's life which include things such as care. Sitting down with the two and helping them understand each other's characters will help the two partners a lot. As seen Paula happens to be very vulnerable and Albert should be careful of this, some of the things that he may say to her may bruise her a lot hence the need to address her with caution. Paula seems to give a lot in the relationship, and via this, it's possible for Albert to strive a little more and give in return what Paula offers in the relationship. But the most important thing is for him to understand Paula's source of the problem and from the information, Paula is less confident in herself, and this makes her weak and overthinks a lot and its totally up to Albert to help her gain confidence and independence within herself.

Vignette Five: Choice/Reality Therapy Framework Applied to Candys Situation

After listening to Candy, it is clear she is in a position she is faced with so many decisions to make and the chances of her making the wrong decisions are way to high. This is due to the fact that she is not close to her parent and the fact that she has already tried marijuana it's evident the company she is keeping is not productive in a positive manner. The best thing to do at the moment is to let her into her current situation and guide her through the right choices. From the look of things, Candy opening up is a positive sign that she is ready to receive help. First, you need to gain her trust and let her know she can confine to me as well as build her trust in me. I would address the issue with her father and let her know that her fathers responses and reaction to things is way overboard hence this would play a huge role in her rebellion. But then introduce her o the decisions she has to make. What does this rebellion do to her and the family? One is always faced with choices, and you have to pick a choice that you feel affects you positively as well as those around you. Let her know when making this choice her life, and that of her family is at hand. What does she want with her life? Let her have a few minutes and think about it then let her give you her responses and you can go through them together (Mills & Elijah et al., 2016). The next thing is the introduction of drugs.

First, show her the link between her first choice that landed her to the other situation of taking drugs. Clearly, address with her the effects of drug abuse and give her the choices that face her. Also, let her reevaluate herself and pick a decision based on what she thinks and the knowledge you have passed to her. With this move on to the next bit which involves her love life. Let her feel comfortable sharing everything with you since so far you have shown her you have no bad intentions with her you are here to just help her in a few decisions she has to make. With this ask her about her boyfriend and what she sees in him. Let her know the consequences of having early sex and let her evaluate if she is willing to go through all that at this age. Let her make her decisions, and you can now help her in picking the right ones.

Vignette Five: Guide to Honest Assessment and Behavior Evaluation / Therapist Response if Resistance to Own Behavior

Having had the talk with candy, I would not address the information she has shared with me in relation to her boyfriend and marijuana, but I would request another therapy session with her. But I would address the issue of her parents on how they react to issues. This keeps her away from sharing with them, and this keeps pushing her farther away. With this, a quick look at Candy's age and the reason behind her rebellion will help the parents learn how to handle her at this age. On the other hand, Candy has to embrace responsibility. Talk to her and let her know as to why the father is responding in the manner he is (Peterson, 2014). With this let her take charge of her mistakes and realize her current situation so as to move on from it. Without mentioning any of the other issues to the parents, she gains more trust in you, and she can put into practice what you just addressed with her since she trusts you.

Vignette Six Family Unit Counseling Focus and Goals to Achieve

First, it is important to show the essence of the family and let them know how important a family is. Let them learn the simple fact on how a fail within the family should affect the whole family, and they need to come together and help the other member up. With this, the Kline family will feel the need to all show up since they will have realized the idea behind the family unit. After they all agree to show up, I would first focus on letting them know what it means to be a family. Through this, I would clearly help them lay down the roles of every family member. With this help curb the issue of pointing fingers within the family members. Then a separate talk with the parents as well would be my request. For this brief meeting, I would address the issue of respect within the family. How the father treats his wife from the brief information in relation to the case seems to present a problem. Then the next thing being the issue of alcohol with the mother. Why is it that alcoholism is an issue among you? With this, the parents play the main role in the family hence establishing the root cause of the mother drinking means a lot. On the other hand, the husband. Providing for the family is not the only role of the father but also being there for the family. Let the children know youre there for them. Then the issue of child equal treatment, how the father treats the elder daughter as a perfect child may lead to the rebellion of the other children, treating all the kids equally lays down the bases of love among the children.

Vignette Six: Family Key Dynamics as a System and Problem Discussion

The key dynamics of the family as a system is communication. This helps the family identify its weakness as well as its strengths. Addressing the problems within the family means there is a chance that the family will be able to address these problems and get to a solution. With this solution, it is possible for the family to resolve the problem before it gets out of hand with our current problem (Grotevant et al., 2016). Finally, the main problem likely to be encountered in this case is the issue with communication. The Kline family seems to have a problem with communicating with each other hence the process of having a third body involved will make it way harder, but with a breakthrough then this will be turned around to success.



Beck, A. T., Davis, D. D., & Freeman, A. (Eds.). (2015). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. Guilford Publications.

Grotevant, H. D., McROY, R. U. T. H., Elde, C. L., & Fravel, D. L. (2016). Adoptive family system dynamics: Variations by level of openness in the adoption. Family process, 33(2), 125-146.

Mills, C., & Elijah Mickel DSW, C. T. R. T. C. (2016). Defining the experiences of Black women: A choice theory/reality therapy approach to understanding the strong Black woman. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Therapy, 31(1), 73.

Peterson, A. V. (2014). Choice theory and reality therapy. Journal of Professional Counseling, Practice, Theory, & Research, 28(1), 41.

Skodlar, B., Henriksen, M. G., Sass, L. A., Nelson, B., & Parnas, J. (2013). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for relationships: a critical evaluation of its theoretical framework from a clinical-phenomenological perspective. Psychopathology, 46(4), 249-265.

Wang, L. K., Ponte, I. C., & Ollen, E. W. (2015). Letting Her Go: Western Adoptive Families Search and Reunion With Chinese Birth Parents. Adoption Quarterly, 18(1), 45-66.


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