Most of the inventions that man prides in were a product of novel ideas by remarkable figures in history. Through more research and development, the previously remote ideas are honed by successive generations to result in a masterpiece that awes the world. In as much as scientists are exploring new technologies, they must strike a balance between innovativeness and its benefits in deciding which designs are promising and thus worth investing in, and those which ought to backfire and lead to the loss of time and money.
Innovation and inventiveness are two plausible concepts that universities and other institutions of higher learning strive to instill in their students. Innovation in the area of science is particularly important due to its contribution to the attainment of efficiency in carrying out day-to-day activities. In other words, the idea is the single most important factor in the development of scientific products (Lakatos 13). Scientists, therefore, capitalize on exploring ideas. In the process of hunting the best and most promising ideas, there are isolated cases in which contradicting opinions arise to criticize a proposed design.
Since scientific concepts ought to be falsifiable, the process of scrutinizing new ideas must be thorough to ensure that the ideas are fool-proof (Windschitl, Thompson, and, Braaten, 942). In the field of medicine, for instance, any new design in treatment, testing, or surgery must undergo severe scrutiny to prevent misdiagnosing or mistreatment of patients in the future. Regardless of the scrutiny, the government and international non-governmental organizations encourage the development of new ideas in medicine that would mitigate persistent problems in this field.
In conclusion, a new technology must closely be followed by criticism in the process of availing only the workable and practical scientific concepts. Falsifiability is a core concept in scientific methodology, and this principle drives the through scrutiny of new ideas.
Lakatos, Imre. "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific research Programmes." Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, ed. I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave (London: Cambridge University Press, 1974) (2014).Windschitl, Mark, Jessica Thompson, and Melissa Braaten. "Beyond the Scientific Method: ModelBased Inquiry as a New Paradigm of Preference for School Science Investigations." Science education 92.5 (2008): 941-967.
One of the core principles of operant conditioning is the consistency of reinforcement (Hughes). Any outcome from a stimulus must be consistent to bring an intended effect. When the stimulus is not consistent, there is a possibility that the subject will revert to a previous situation of bad behavior (Hughes). Mr. Byrnes class is unruly due to the application of inconsistent stimulus.
Mr. Byrne did not apply punishment consistently, and the children experienced instances of positive outcomes during the punishment breaks (Anderson). Therefore, the children continued to portray bad behavior to push their teacher to a point at which he would not punish them any longer. The case of Mr. Byrne and his students is an example of negative reinforcement. His seventh-grade students do not want to learn and they delight in getting disruptive in class. First, scolding them is not consistent with an effective disciplinary action, and the students tend to repeat their behavior since the punishment is not effectively eliminating their behavior.
Secondly, the students have learnt that every time they make noise, the teacher scolds them and the time for the lessons moves on without learning. Since their positive outcome is not learning, they continue disrupting the class to attract more scolding from the teacher and eventually consuming time for the lesson.
Since the use of inconsistent stimulus is the cause of the deterioration of students behavior in class, Mr. Byrne can reduce the disruptive behavior by asking questions to the students every time they disrupt the lesson. The teacher would then suspend every student who gives a wrong answer from the class for two weeks. In this manner, the students will associate their disruptive behavior with suspension and, therefore, become attentive for the fear of getting suspended.
Anderson, A. R. Tips on the Misuses of Negative Reinforcement for Parents. Global Post, 2013. everydaylife.globalpost.com/tips-misuses-negative-reinforcement-parents-6056.html
Hughes, Emily. To Condition the Child. Vanderbilt.edu, 2013. my.vanderbilt.edu/developmentalpsychologyblog
Q3. Experiences and Memory
Learning comes from experience. Once a person comes across a certain event, they deduce some information and learn from the same. If the event has damaging effects, the person commits all their energy to avoid its recurrence (Sharot et al. 390). On the other hand, if the event is associated with positive outcomes, the person lives to yearn for its recurrence and may even encourage its recurrence. The experience is as important as its memories. However, there are no memories without the experience. In other words, an event comes first while the memories come later.
The answer to the question of whether an experience is more important than its memories depends on the context (Brewer et al. 1185). In some cases, somebody may experience something when in dire need of it. A poor man suffering from poverty can win a lottery and become a multimillionaire. The man will always cherish this event since it marked the turning point of his life. The memories of this event will always be fresh in his mind every time he remembers his past. A rich man can also win the lottery but the experience will not be as eventful as with the poor man.
Experiences do not create long-lasting memories if they occur often. In the example above, the rich mans lottery win will not make any significant change in the mans financial status. He will take this winning as one of the many chances he has made profits in his business. In other words, if the man does not hold dear the memories of all his profits, he will not probably remember the jackpot.
Therefore, the memories are created by the experience, and the magnitude of the experience depends on the context. In a nutshell, the experience is more important than its memories, although the latter stem from the former.
Brewer, James B., et al. "Making Memories: Brain Activity That Predicts How Well Visual Experience Will Be Remembered." Science 281.5380 (1998): 1185-1187.
Sharot, Tali, et al. "How personal experience modulates the neural circuitry of memories of September 11." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104.1 (2007): 389-394.
Q4. Problem Solving
Problems are part of everyday living. They are unexpected events that hinder our free will. Problem-solving can be learnt in school or through experience (Masons, Williams and Cranmer 12). Root cause and cost-benefit analyses support problem solving, while the lack of the necessary skills hinders the process.
Problem-solving is a process supported by people and systems. The systems are the strategies that are used to getting a long-term and cost-effective solution to a problem. One of the strategies that support problem-solving is root cause analysis (Jonassen and Hernandez-Serrano 67). Getting to the bottom of the matter is the first step in finding a solution to a problem. Once the root cause is identified, a resolution can be developed based on the findings. This strategy ensures that the problem never recurs. Failure to conduct root cause analysis can lead to the occurrence of the same problem in the future.
Another strategy that supports problem-solving is a cost-benefit analysis. Some problems can be expensive to solve and their solutions can lead to losses if a careful cost-benefit analysis is not undertaken. The lack of skilled people to carry out cost-benefit analysis, root cause analysis, and other methods of solving a problem is an obstacle to the process of getting a solution to a problem.
Cost-benefit and root cause analyses prevent the loss of money and time while solving problems. At the same time, they prevent the reoccurrence of the problem in the future. However, these strategies require people to implement, meaning that the lack of skilled manpower hinders problem-solving.
Jonassen, David H., and Julian Hernandez-Serrano. "Case-Based Reasoning and Instructional Design: Using Stories to Support Problem Solving." Educational Technology Research and Development 50.2 (2002): 65-77.
Mason, Geoff, Gareth Williams, and Sue Cranmer. "Employability Skills Initiatives In Higher Education: What Effects Do They Have On Graduate Labor Market Outcomes?" Education Economics 17.1 (2009): 1-30.
Q5. Multiple Intelligence
Human beings are endowed with many abilities that allow them to make exploits that support their living. The abilities are attributable to the numerous historical inventions that resulted in modern civilization. Similarly, the development of the automotive engines, the mobile phone, and more recently, the computers are exploits supported by the multiplicity of abilities that human beings have. I am personally talented in both class work and field activities.
The education system is pivotal to the discovery and exploitation of human abilities. Education triggers the inherent abilities of students and allows them to connect them with the environment (Eccles et al. 870). Some people are excellent scientists, while they also excel in sports and leadership. The classroom is an important avenue in discovering intelligence, while the field and other extracurricular activities are equally useful (Coleman, Lawrence and Tracy 165).
My gifts were discovered in the tracks during the physical exercise education. I noted that every time the teacher asked us to sprint across the playing field, I had a lot of energy and always came first in my lot. I, therefore, believe that I am a gifted sprinter who can make advances even in the Olympics. I am also a good leader who possesses the necessary skills to direct others. I always contribute constructive ideas in the company of my peers, the ability that saw me grasp a seat in the students council
I am an exemplar of the multiplicity of abilities due to my good performance in academics and extracurricular activities. I know my abilities because of my conduct in the presence of others. The education system I have undergone through allowed me to discover that I am endowed with multiple abilities.
Coleman, Laurence J., and Tracy L. Cross. Being Gifted In School: An Introduction to Development, Guidance, and Teaching. Prufrock Press, Inc.,
Eccles, Jacquelynne S., et al. "Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Development." Journal of Social Issues 59.4 (2003): 865-889.
There are many factors that can lead to mental stress. The brain is the main organ that controls emotions. The process of regulation of these emotions involves an intricate pattern of hormone release, transport, and metabolism (Williams et al 300). Autogenic relaxation is a simple de-stressing technique because it can be accomplished in a confined setting like the examination room.
When there are many emotions for the brain to process, a person can suffer from mental stress. Additionally, many hours of mentally demanding work, societal and familial demands and the need to meet strict deadlines can add stress to a person. There is thus a need to adopt de-stressing techniques to relieve the brain of the stress. Normally, stress affects the heart and lungs and puts pressure on them to meet the demands of the body for glucose and oxygen (Williams et al. 302). An extremely high activity of these vital organs is detrimental in the long run, and therefore de-stressing is necessary.
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