Need a unique essay?
Order now

Psychology Paper Example: Theories of Health Behavior

5 pages
1187 words
University of California, Santa Barbara
Type of paper: 
Problem solving
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The model of trans-theoretical is a bio-psychological method conceptualizing the steps of deliberate conduct change. Although other methods of character change focus entirely on the specific change dimension kike concepts focusing on biological or social influence. However, the TTM pursues to involve and integrate major constructs from other philosophies into a wide-ranging concept of change, which may be applied to a diversity of populations, characters, as well as settings; thus the term Trans theoretical.

The steps of change

The Steps of Change fib at the sentiment of TTM. According to the research of change, individuals move through a series of steps when changing their character. Though the moment an individual may stay in very step is variable, the jobs needed to change to the ensuing level are not (Glanz Rimer & Viswanath, 2015). Specific policies as well as steps of change work well at every step to decrease resistance, prevent relapse and facilitate progress. Those policies involve a balance of decision, change process, and self-efficacy. Only the minority approximately 20% of people are always prepared to take the risk any time (Glanz, Rimer, Viswanath & Orleans, 2016). Therefore, performance-oriented guidance miseries people during the early steps. Control based on the TTM leads to increased partaking in the alteration due to its demands to the entire population pretty than the marginal ready to yield action.

The concept of stage represents a sequential dimension. Transformation entails sensation happening over a long period of time. Amazingly, nothing of the leading notions have a major tie of representation (Glanz Rimer & Viswanath, 2015). Habitually, change of behavior was always interpreted as an occasion like drinking, quitting smoking, or over-gorging. TTM identifies transformation as a procedure, which develops over time, including process through sequences of steps. Although development through the steps of transformation occurs in an undeviating fashion, a progression of nonlinear is normal (Glanz Rimer & Viswanath, 2015). Always, people salvage through chains or relapse to previous steps from advanced ones.

Pre-contemplation (Not Ready)

Individuals in the stage of pre-contemplation do not aim to make a beginning in the predictable future, normally measured as the ensuing six months. Being under-informed about the penalties for individuals behavior causes an individual to deflation on the capability to transformation (Glanz Rimer & Viswanath, 2015). Pre-contemplators are often featured in other concepts as unmotivated, resistant, or not ready for assistance. The truth is, traditional agendas were not prepared for such people and were not planned to meet their requirements.

Contemplation (Getting Ready)

Contemplation is a step where individuals intend to transform in the following six months. People are aware of the advantages of transformation but are further acutely aware of the disadvantages. During a meta-assessment across health risk characters, the advantages and disadvantages were the same (Glanz, Rimer, Viswanath & Orleans, 2016). This basis of the values as well as benefits of transformation produce spectacle uncertainty, which is featured as long-lasting contemplation or social procrastination. People in the stage of contemplation are not set for ancient action-oriented services that suppose participants to turn immediately.

Preparation (Ready)

Grounding is the step where individuals intend to partake action in the prompt future, normally measured as the following month. Naturally, they have now taken many important actions in the previous years. These people have an action plan for joining a gymnasium, consulting a therapist, communicating with their doctor, or depending on an approach to personal change. These are the individuals who ought to be admitted to actions-leaning programs.


The action is the step where individuals have made a particular modification of overt in their way of life within a period of six months. Since the action is visible, the general process of character transformation always has been connected with action. Although in the TTM, Action is among the five steps of transformation (Glanz, Rimer, Viswanath & Orleans, 2016). Usually, not all behavior alterations sum as action in the model. In many applications, individuals have to achieve a standard, which professionals, as well as scientist approve, is adequate to decline risk of sickness. For instance, lessening in the number of cigarettes or swapping to low-nicotine and low-tar cigarettes were before measured suitable actions.


Maintenance is the step where individuals have created particular modifications of overt in their way of life and are employed to prevent deterioration; therefore, people do not apply transformation steps as regularly as do individuals do during Action stage. Although in the stage of maintenance, individuals are less attracted to deterioration and develop increasingly more poised that individuals can maintain their changes (Glanz, Rimer, Viswanath & Orleans, 2016). According to the personal-efficacy information, scholars have projected that maintenance persists from six months to approximately five years. Though this estimate may look somewhat negative, longitudinal information in the report of general surgeon support this sequential estimate of 1990 (Glanz, Rimer, Viswanath & Orleans, 2016). After one year of nonstop abstinence, 45% of people returned to normal smoking.

The balance of decision making.

Janis and Mann (1977) theorized resolution making as a poise sheet of proportional impending benefits as well as loss. Two components of decisional poise, the advantages, and disadvantages, have emerged as primary constructs in the model of TTM (Glanz Rimer & Viswanath, 2015). Since people progress through the steps of transformation, the balance of decision shifts in dangerous ways. When a person is in the stage of pre-contemplation, the advantages in behavior change favor are outweighed by the virtual disadvantages all for changing outweigh the advantages for sustaining the unhealthy character, most people move to groundwork or stage of action (Glanz Rimer & Viswanath, 2015). Since people enter the stage of maintenance, the disadvantages favoring the change of behavior must outweigh the disadvantages of sustaining the transformation so as to decrease the danger of relapse.


The TTM mixes the features of Banduras theory of self-efficacy (Hayden, 2013). This concept replicates the degree of poise people have in keeping their wanted character change in conditions which always activate relapse. It is measured also through the degree to which people feel curious to return to their behavior problem in situations of high risk (Hayden, 2013). In the contemplation and pre-contemplation stages, curiosity to participate in the tricky behavior is far better than personal efficacy to withhold. Since people move from grounding to action, the difference between temptation closes and self-efficacy feelings, as well as behavior transformation is achieved (Hayden, 2013). Relapse always happens in conditions where feelings of lure trump peoples self-efficacy sense to keep the wanted change of behavior.

Processes of Change

Although the steps of change are important when explaining transformations in cognition, behavior, and emotion take place, the procedures assist to clarify how to successfully growth through the steps of transformation and achieve the wanted change of behavior (Glanz Rimer & Viswanath, 2015). These ten procedures may be divided into two groups: reasoning and emotional experiential procedures as well as processes of behavior.



Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., Viswanath, K., & Orleans, C. T. (2016). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice.


Hayden, J. A. (2013). Introduction to Health Behavior Theory. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.


Have the same topic and dont`t know what to write?
We can write a custom paper on any topic you need.

Request Removal

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the website, please click below to request its removal: