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Organizational Project Management - Literature Review Example

2021-07-29 18:04:29
6 pages
1510 words
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Harvey Mudd College
Type of paper: 
Literature review
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Riddell, (2017) accentuates the significance of the project management institute in defining the project management application of preference projects knowledge skills, tools and significant techniques that capitalize in a range that heightens in meeting the requirements of the project. Project management entices pragmatic evaluation and application of structured project logical procedures towards the achievement of the success. Larry Bull et al., (2012) heightens distinct project life cycle phases which define procedural events towards the project's incentives. The project management editorial defines the solid foundation of project steps from initialization till closure towards achieving the objectives and goals.

Larry Bull et al., (2012) and Riddell, (2017) comprehensively defines the project delivery strategy which is vested in setting programmable management living plan heightens of configuring the project objectives and ensure timeliness of project (Larry Bull et al, 2012). The review argues that from the continual competitive project environment there is a need of extracting the key project's strategies that work towards the achievement of projects goal and objective within the specified timeframe. Jaleel (2013) and Larry Bull et al., (2012) accentuates the significance of the correlation between the structure efficient project management as well as competitive advantage defines the organizational need for striving towards enhancing standardize project delivery strategies to enhance the project management capabilities of achieving project desired maturity and results (Jaleel, 2013).

Larry Bull et al., (2012) and Davidson (2014) argues that majority of modern-day construction projects surpasses the need of describing project profiles that work for addressing the projects objectives and goals on the specified structure. The reviews commend the significance of defining optimal projects measures that is strategically oriented to ensure the success of the construction project phases and achievement of the desired goals and objectives. (BC Housing Design Guidelines and Construction Standards, 2014). Riddell, (2017) asserts that the project management team consideration in adopting unique strategies that work in solving complex aspects of the project environment and achieves the best result of the project. The author also comprehends the effective project management practices integrating engineering disciplines that includes the applying of technologically oriented measure that entail the use of sophisticated construction equipment towards the unique construction methods. Davidson (2014): Indelicato, G. (2011) and Heagney, J. (2012) highlights that adhering to standardized practices, as well as ensuring that the project manager has industry-specific knowledge is essential for overall project performance.

Organizational project management.

Heagney, J. (2012) and (Larry Bull et al, 2012) heightens on structural Organizational Project Management (OPM) model which is considered ideal business approach and value chain strategy for effectively merging and maturing the capabilities of project, program, and portfolio management to maximize an organization's delivery of value to all stakeholders. Several academic sources suggest that organizations follow the OPM model in project management. Furthermore, Organizational Project Management (OPM) ensures the organization accomplishes its strategic goals (What is New in the PMBOK Guide, 2017).

Hegney (2012) argues that OPM ensures that the organization carries out the right projects, critical resources are properly allocated, and that everyone who is part of the organization understands the strategic vision, initiatives, objectives, and deliverables. The Project Management Institute has further detailed the project lifecycle specifically for construction projects (2004). Figure 4 below illustrates the four stages of the construction project lifecycle: Feasibility, Planning and Design, Production and Turnover and Startup.

 

Figure 4. Representative Construction Project Life Cycle, per Morris. Source: (Project Management Institute, 2004).

The logical project steps define the procedural measures that ensure on projects initialization and successful completion. The project steps entail the following:

Project conception and initialization

This is the initial project step which involves the construction of the project cycle while defining its realistic and feasibility measure. The step defines the project goals, resources cost, as well as the timeframe of the project completion (Riddell, 2017). The initiation phase configures the parameters of assessing the projects significance which will prompt the next course of project entailing the planning.

Project definition and planning

The project conception is imperative phase since the project scope is formulated giving priority to major project outline and definition of risk associated with the project (Riddell, 2017). The phase comprehends p the communication medias aided in summarizing the project actualization towards the predetermine project objectives. This phase also configures the development of project team that will configure the execution of the project.

Projects Launching and Execution

The phase accentuates systematic development of the lifecycle of the project with the strategic definition of project responsibilities as well as plans for the project meeting and schedule attached to meeting the project modification plans (Riddell, 2017). The phase also entails the project allocation and assigning of teams specific task and conducting project status meetings.

Project performance control

The phase accentuates the key performance indicating the cost, time and quality incentives aided at initiating the project completion and cost tracking measures (Riddell, 2017). The phase entices the project managers controls on tracking the project progress and regulation of optimistic risk on the projects.

Project closure

This is the last phase of project which entail the projects evaluation to allow the project members to evaluate the documents as well as improving the risk uncertainties for future success of subsequent project (Riddell, 2017). The phase is vital since the project stakeholders configures the planning phase and result obtain to determines the projects success based on the allocated resources.

 

Figure 5. Example of Various Persspectives for Project with Predictive Life Cycle (Project Management Institute, 2016).

Owners phase

The is the initial phase of projects establishment which represent the fundamental project decision as well as significant alternatives that works towards achievement of request for proposal (RFP) to be issued to project designer (Larry Bull et al, 2012).

Project designer phase

The phase entails systematic decision-making criteria based on the RFP proposal delivered and the preparation of the designed proposal that works as a benchmark in performing the projects design as well as documentations before issuance to contractor (Riddell, 2017).

Contractors phase

This phase orders the decision based on the relevant designers presentation as well as the preparation of construction proposal that puts a contract on board for completion within a specified timeframe.

The Project Management Institute (2016) emphasizes the need to map out a project life cycle as it relates to the perspective of the owner, the designer and the contractor (figure 5). Indelicato (2011) asserts that it is essential for organizations to choose the most optimum life cycle for projects to ensure utmost flexibility. The author notes that flexibility comprises of adjustment to multiple phase attributes, carrying out processes in the appropriate phase, and identification of processes. OPM model is preferred because it allows for flexibility which ensures that all conditions are made optimal for the organization to realize its objectives and goals.

Ensuring that a project is aligned with its strategic goals is essential for effective project management. Ibbs and Reginato (2002) noted in their study project management measure anticipated to lower performance cost. The Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3), developed by the Project Management Institute, is intended to offer guidelines for an organizations senior management team, along with everyone participating in the project (Davidson, 2014). The OPM3 model is an assessment and improvement tool which is designed to analyse project, program and portfolio management maturity of any organization (Farrokh J. and Azhar K. Mansur (2013).

The Model is divided into three interlocking elements: knowledge, assessment, and improvement (Organizational Management Maturity Model, 2013). Davidson (2014) describes the knowledge element as the ability of the project manager to become fluent in the best management practices by being familiar with the methodologies and concepts of OPM3. The assessment element is where the organization compares the project to the standard to establish where the organization stands regarding project management (Indelicato, 2011). In the improvement element, organizations utilize the assessment element to choose to move forward and implement strategies (Indelicato, 2011).

 

References

Larry Bull et al. (2012). Delivering strategy : organizational project management and the strategic PMO. Retrieved from https://www.pmi.org/learning/library/pmo-opm-performance-strategy-6075

Bannazadeh, B., Zomorodian, Z., & Maghareh, M. (2013). Assessment of PMBOK Indexes in Executive Projects. Journal of Advanced Management Science, 265-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.12720/joams.1.3.265-268

BC Housing Design Guidelines and Construction Standards. (2014) (1st ed.). British Columbia.

Construction extension to the PMBOK guide. (2016). Newtown Square, Pennsylvania.

Davidson Frame, J. (2014). Reconstructing Project Management. Project Management Journal, 45(1), e2-e2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmj.21387

Heagney, J. (2012). Fundamentals of project management. New York: American Management Association.

Indelicato, G. (2011). Project management fundamentals: Key concepts and methodology, second edition. Project Management Journal, 43(1), 92-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmj.20288

Organizational project management maturity model (OPM3). (2013). Newtown Square, Pennsylvania.

PRINCE2, the PMBOK Guide and ISO 21500:2012. (2017). Axelos.com. Retrieved 8 December 2017, from https://www.axelos.com/CMSPages/GetFile.aspx?guid=4bf6bd26-2805-4b7f-8cba-c56a899eb871

Project and Construction Management | UBC Civil. (2017). Civil.ubc.ca. Retrieved 8 December 2017, from http://www.civil.ubc.ca/academic-programs/graduate-program/specializations/project-and-construction-management-0

Project Management Life Cycle Methodology. (2017). Method123.com. Retrieved 8 December 2017, from http://www.method123.com/project-lifecycle.php

Riddell, T. (2017, January 27). The 5 Stages of Project Management Understanding a Construction Projects Life Cycle. Retrieved from https://esub.com/5-stages-project-management-understanding-construction-projects-life-cycle/

What Is New In the PMBOK Guide 6th Edition - an in-depth comparison. (2017). Eduhubspot.com. Retrieved 8 December 2017, from https://www.eduhubspot.com/What-is-New-in-PMBOK-Guide-6th-Ed.pdf

Zandhuis, A., Stellingwerf, R., & Newton, S. (2013). ISO 21500 guidance on project management. Zaltbommel: Van Haren Publishing.

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