Title: Animal and Plant Cell Structures
Instructions: Your lab report will consist of the completed tables. Label each structure of the plant and animal cell with its description and function in the provided tables.
When your lab report is complete, submit this document to your instructor in your assignment box.
Animal cell: Observe the diagram that shows the components of an animal cell. Using the textbook and virtual library resources, fill in the following table:
Number Cell Structure Description and Function
1 Mitochondria Spherical rod shaped. Converts the energy stored in glucose to ATP for the cell.
2 Plasma membrane Thin layer of protein and fats. It controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell.
3 Microtubules Long thin structures with protein tubulin. They give shape and help to support the cell.
4 Centrosome Small organelles located near the nucleus. Produces microtubules.
5 Lysosome Round in shape. Produces enzymes that help in digestion.
6 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum A large system of folded interconnected tubes in the cytoplasm. Use to transport materials through the cells.
7 Secretory vesicle Membrane-bound organelle that is derived for Golgi bodies. It packages cell secretions such as hormones.
8 Peroxisome It produces lipids and bile acid as well as breaking down hydrogen peroxide.
9 Vacuole Membrane-covered fluid-fill cavities. Stores food being digested as well as wastes being transported out of the cell.
10 Cytoplasm Jelly-like material that houses the cell organelles and dissolves substances such as salts .11 Golgi vesicle It transports the proteins secreted in the endoplasmic reticulum.
12 Golgi apparatus Sac-like organelles and found near the nucleus. Synthesizes lysosomes membranes.
13 Chromatin A system of macromolecules located in the cell nucleus. Helps the cell DNA to store genetic information.
14 Nucleolus Found inside the nucleus. Produces ribosomal RNA.
15 Nucleus Spherical in shape and contains nucleolus. Controls the functions of the cell.
16 Rough endoplasmic reticulum A series of membrane-bound tubules covered with ribosomes of their surface. They transport produced proteins from the vesicles to the Golgi bodies
17 Ribosomes RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules. They synthesis protein
18 Intermediate filament Found in the cells of vertebrates and they are cytoskeletal in nature. Mainly serve as the mechanical support structures for the plasma membrane.
19 Cilia and flagella Hair-like organelles at the surface of the cell. Help in the locomotion of single celled organism.
Plant cell: Observe the diagram that shows the major components of a plant cell. Using the textbook and virtual library resources, fill in the following table:
Number Cell Structure Description and Function
1 Cell wall Outermost thick and rigid membrane composed of cellulose. Provides mechanical support to the cell against infection and stress.
2 Cell membrane Its a semi-permeable membrane forming the outer lining inside the cell wall. Controls passage of substances in and out of the cell.
3 Vacuole Membrane-bound chamber. It functions as the cells storage center.
4 Nucleolus Found inside the nucleus. Produces ribosomal RNA.
5 Nuclear membrane Its a lipid -bilayer that its encloses the nucleus .offers protection to the cell nucleus and its components.
6 Chloroplast Disc-shaped organelle that is composed of chlorophyll. It is the site for photosynthesis process.
7 Mitochondrion Double-membrane bound organelles. Helps in the conversion of glucose to ATP energy molecules.
8 Golgi complex Located near the nucleus.it processes and pack the macromolecules produced in other parts of the cell.
9 Ribosomes Smallest organelles in the cell and consists of RNA. They serves as sites for protein synthesis
10 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Houses enzymes that produces and digests lipids.
11 Rough endoplasmic reticulum Membranous convoluted sacks situated in the cytoplasm. Produces proteins as well as transporting materials in the cell.
12 Centrosome Produces microtubules.
13 Amyloplast Found in starchy plant cells. Storage site for starch
14 Cytoplasm Gel-like medium bound by a membrane. Supports the cell by preventing shrinkage or bursting.
15 Nucleus Its double-membrane organelles that are responsible for control of all cell function. Also synthesizes protein.
16 Microbody Single membrane enclosed organelle .It house the degradative enzymes.
17 Microtubules Hollow cylindrical shaped. They help in transportation of materials in the cell as well as offering support.
18 Microfilaments Solid rod in nature. Primarily act as supporting structure for the cell.
19 Plastid Storage organelle. Stores starch that is used to produce terpenes fatty acids
Questions to answer
List 3 organelles that are found in plant cells that are not found in animal cells.
Because plant cells have chloroplasts and can do photosynthesis, why do they also need mitochondria? They need mitochondria because the plant cell cannot use glucose in its raw form. It has to be converted to ATP hence the need for mitochondria to carryout the conversion.
Kaiser, C. A., Krieger, M., Lodish, H., & Berk, A. (2007). Molecular cell biology. WH Freeman.
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