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Essay Sample: The Forces Acting on the Hip Joint

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920 words
Wesleyan University
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The walking circle refers to the iterative patterns a person makes while walking. There is a time in the gait circle when only one leg is touching the ground. Four main forces act on the hip joint while in a stance. They include:

Fm: This is the force of gluteal muscles dragging against the extended trochanter of the hip which is focused 71 degrees from the level axis.

Fr: A responsive force of the acetabulum squeezes against the head of the femur and orients 77.3 degrees from the horizontal axis.

W: The normal force of the floor that feigns on the bottom of the leg that is equivalent to ones weight.

WI: The mass of the foot which is precisely 0.185W.

The Gluteus Muscles

The surface muscles of the gluteal region comprise of three glutei and the tensor fascia lata. They majorly act to seize and enlarge the lower limb at the hip joint.

Gluteus Maximus

Its the largest among the gluteal muscles and the most superficial also producing the shape of the buttocks. It is the principal extensor of the hip and helps with rotation. Athletes involved in sports with unique, unusual impacts best gluteal development to mean that joint actions and loading types are needed for the muscle to develop fully. The gluteus maximus instant arm for hip extension tells that it is the primary hip extension in the sagittal plane and reduces with increasing hip flexion angle. It the most operative when the hip is close to full extension, implying that the more one exercises, the more beneficial to its development.

Gluteus Medius

The muscle lies between gluteus maximus and minimus and is fan-shaped. They two are same in structure and function. Gluteus Medius comes from the gluteal surface of the ilium and enters into the lateral surface of the greater trochanter. It abducts and averagely rotates the lower limb during movement. It protects the lower leg not allowing a pelvic drop of the opponent limb.

Tensor Fascia Lata

Tensor fasciae lata is a small shallow muscle that lies in the direction of the anterior edge of the iliac crest. It tightens the fascia lata and rotates the inner limb. It comes from the interior iliac crest, connects to the anterior Superior iliac spine. It helps the gluteus medius and minimus averagely in the rotation and abduction of the lower limb. It plays a supportive function in a walking circle.

The Deep Muscles

These are a set of small muscles found underneath the gluteus minimus. The collective action of this muscles is to rotate the lower limb on the sideways. They also make the hip joint stable by dragging the femoral head into the acetabulum of the pelvis.


It is the highest ranked of the deep muscles and a key landmark in the gluteal region. It initially comes from the anterior surface of the sacrum then moves infero-laterally, through the greater sciatic foramen, to enter into the extended trochanter of the femur. It performs abduction and lateral rotation.

Obturator Internus

It forms the side walls of the pelvic cavity. It starts from the pubis and ischium at the obturator foramen and connects to the extended trochanter of the femur. It also laterally rotates and abducts.

The Gemelli superior and interior

The abturator internus tendon separates the two muscles. They are narrow and rectangular. They orient from the ischial spine and are attached to the extended trochanter of the femur. The perform abduction and lateral rotation.

Quadratus Femoris

It is flat and square-shaped muscle. The quadratus femoris is the most inferior of the under gluteal muscles situated bellow the germilli and abturator internus. It originates from sideways of ischial tuberosity and links to the quadrate tuberosity of the intertrochanteric crest. It laterally rotates.

The optimal way to activate Gluteal muscles

Activating gluteal muscles will bring about correct muscle recruitment patterns and improve strength and performance. Gluteus maximus is the most active muscle in the entire body and can multi-task. The tissue is capable combine a local stabilizer, global stabilizer, and global mobilizer role. Gluteus maximus is mostly active during running, stair climbing and activities that include making the trunk stable against flexion. An exercise that involves all these movements would initiate a muscular contraction of the gluteus maximus and meet the need for both action and stabilizing role.

Effect of abdominal movement on gluteal muscles

Body changes like single-leg squat and single-leg Romanian deadlift need concentric hip extension entirely on extended distance movement, frontal plane pelvic stability, with a restrain of the stance leg in the transverse and frontal plane, which brings about a neural control of the gluteal Maximus, medius and other muscles of the sideway system. In single-leg squat and pull the hand contrary to the stance leg loads. The added force stimulates the outer rotator ability of the gluteus maximus and medius and allows this exercises a multi-planar character. The glutes require to stabilize the hip in the transverse and frontal plane and produce movement in a sagittal plane. These exercises lure the cross-body attachment that transmits forces from the ground passing through the leg and hip.



Fanelli, G. C. (2001). Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: A Practical Guide to Management. New York, NY: Springer New York.

In Levangie, P. K., In Norkin, C. C., & Levangie, P. K. (2011). Joint structure and function: A comprehensive analysis.

Shultz, S., & Schmitz, R. (January 01, 2009). Effects of Transverse and Frontal Plane Knee Laxity on Hip and Knee Neuromechanics During Drop Landings. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 9, 1821-1830.


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