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Neurological Disorder - Health Essay Example

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1363 words
Carnegie Mellon University
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Neurological condition is illness of the central and peripheral nervous system for instance; spinal cord, brain, nerve roots, automatic nervous system cranial nerves, muscular and neuromuscular junction. The condition includes; cerebrovascular disease (sclerosis, stroke, migraine and headache illness), epilepsy, Alzheimer disease and other dementias, Parkinsons disease, traumatic illness of the nervous system due to head trauma and neurological disorders as a result of malnutrition.

According to World Health Organization report 2016, hundreds of millions of persons globally are affected by the neurological disease, and more than six million of people die as a result of a stroke every year, and this reflects eighty percent of deaths from low and middle-income nations. Also, it is estimated that fifty million people have epilepsy universally while forty-seven point five million of persons have dementia and a new seven point seven million cases yearly. Condition of the nervous system have overwhelming effects and are extensively spread among the populace especially the elderly (Ashwort & Saunders, 2013). This condition is caused by hereditary alterations that result in abnormal nervous system growth and impaired neuronal function.

Several neurological diseases are congenital while others are acquired. Genetic issues can influence the growth of a range of neurological conditions that are typically genetic from parents through genes and chromosomes. This may result from gene abnormalities, change in chromosome numbers, metabolic illness, chromosome abnormalities, change in chromosome structure and congenital deformity. Cause of neurological condition can be varied for example both brain, and spinal cord is insulted by numerous membranes that can be susceptible to pressure and force. Also, peripheral nerves are situated deep under the skin can also be exposed to damage. For that reason, neurological illness can affect a whole neurological pathway causing dysfunction. Other causes include; infections, physical injuries, nutrition-related causes, lifestyle-related causes, environmental influences as well as genetics.

Signs of neurological disease vary significantly depending upon the type of condition as well as the specific area of the body affected. In some cases, you might experience physical or emotional symptoms. Emotion symptoms include; delusion or depression, mood swings or sudden outburst and this may be as a result of other conditions. Physical symptoms include; decreased alertness, reduced cognitive abilities, muscle weakness, partial or complete loss of sensation, unexplained pain, seizure as well as partial or full paralysis.

Numerous neurological condition occurs during early years of growth and may be detected at birth while some are diagnosed late since symptoms only appear when a child had development hitches, an accident causes brain injury (hypoxia, stroke or trauma) and when an injuring infection occurs (meningitis). Encephalitis can be caused by numerous types of inflammation particularly of the virus, and some children may develop long-term consequences which comprise; behavioral change, memory glitches, epilepsy and speech impairment (Bradley, 2008). Meningitis is caused by a viral or bacterial infection that inflames the membranes surrounding spinal cord and brain. The irritation and bulge can injure the nerve and brains and complications are more likely from bacterial meningitis than viral meningitis. Symptoms consist of; learning impairments, coordinating and balance problems, hearing disabilities, cerebral palsy, loss of vision as well as speech impairments.

Traumatic brain injury occurs when trauma to the head results in the damage to the brain. Types of traumatic brain injury include; open wounds where the brain is exposed and damaged by an object, crushing injury where the head is broken, and brain damage occurred and closed head injury where no damage is visible and are common during car accidents. Various suggestion shows that childrens brain is prone to lasting suffering from traumatic brain harm due to disturbance of the nervous system during growth. Exposure to environmental toxins during childhood can lead to neurological conditions.

Cerebral palsy is a condition triggered by damage to the brain during pregnancy, delivery or shortly after birth. It is accompanied by difficulty speaking, seizures, blindness, lack of coordination or mental retardation and hearing loss. Cerebral palsy yield chronic motor disability in children and cause are relatively varied and range from deformities of brain growth to birth linked injuries to postnatal brain injuries.

Diagnosis of the neurological disorder can be made through laboratory screening test of blood, urine or other substance to understand the disease process and monitor level of therapeutic drugs. A blood test can detect spinal cord infection, hemorrhage, brain infection, bone marrow disease, blood vessel damage, the presence of antibodies that signal the presence of autoimmune condition and toxins that affect the nervous system. Analysis of fluids around spinal cord and brain can detect meningitis, inflammation, multiple sclerosis and rare infections. Genetic counseling help parents who have a family history of neurological disorder identify if they have genes that cause the disease or found out if their child is affected (Ashwort & Saunders, 2013).

Neurological examination is carried out to assess motor and sensory skills, hearing speech, coordination and balance, the function of cranial nerves, mental status and changes in behavior. X-rays are carried out on patients skull or chest to view any part of the body especially major organs and joints.

Treatment of neurological illness consists of managing the symptoms and finding a way of existing with them and understanding them. Physiotherapy has been presented to be helpful for movement side of functional illness such as tremors and weakness. Also, sensory symptoms such as seizure and pain, cognitive behavior therapy and psychotherapy can assist. The type of drug to be used for the treatment of neurological disease will depend on individual condition, and the drug may include corticosteroids which are indicated for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. This medication helps with decreasing inflammation. Also, dopamine affecting drugs such as levodopa is used for the treatment of Parkinsons to assist with rigidity and tremors (Bradley, 2008).

Brain mapping is used mainly for brain tumors and epilepsy while brain stimulations are used for Parkinsons condition. The neurosurgeon uses three-dimensional imaging technology to operate the brain to heightened mark, the exact area where the tumor is situated and not to produce any enduring neurological deficit. Deep brain stimulation use battery activated neurotransmitters implanted below the collarbone to stop the abnormal brain signals that are generated in patients with Parkinsons condition. Gamma knife machine is used to provide a single highly focused, high dose of emission to its target such as abnormal blood vessel creation with little or no harm to the tissue adjacent the area of treatment. Gene therapy has been made possible through progress in understanding the underlying disease mechanism particularly those involving sensory neurons.

Lifestyle changes are essential in management and treatment of neurological disorder. Engagement in a various activity that alleviates stress and anxiety, progressive muscle relaxation and meditation is helpful. Consumption of balanced diet meals, fostering positive relationship, getting enough sleep and maintain a good quality of life also contributes to stress reduction. Alzheimers condition is the sixth top source of demise in the United States and its effect on health care system, and the patient is increasing. Current medicine treats the condition but cannot slow, reverse or stop the progressive worsening and dementia it causes.

Multiple sclerosis is a common disabling neurologic condition in young persons, and it has affected about a quarter of millions of persons in America. Symptoms result from a repeated attacks of inflammation in the central nervous system which happen through an autoimmune mechanism. Source of multiple sclerosis is unidentified, and patients are not born with it, but some ecological factor seemingly acts on genetically vulnerable folks to produce the illness (Ashwort & Saunders, 2013). Multiple sclerosis favors females over males by a ratio of nearly two to one, and it attacks most often amongst ages of twenty to forty. Multiple sclerosis is deadly, and life expectancy is shortened by few months. Fifteen years after the onset of multiple sclerosis, around twenty percent of the patients are bedridden, additional twenty percent require wheelchair or crutches. It is noted that new methodology for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis has been established. In less than ten years, five drugs have been developed and have a supported ability to alleviate the illness.



Ashwort, B. & Saunders, M. (2013). Management of Neurological Disorders. Elsevier Science.

Bradley, W.G. (2008). Neurology in Clinical Practice: The Neurological disorders. Butterworth-Heinemann Elsevier.


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