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Essay Sample on Canadian Government Structure

7 pages
1690 words
Carnegie Mellon University
Type of paper: 
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Canadian Government was established and constructed at confederation under the constitution act, 1867, as a federal constitutional monarchy. Canada is governed by the queen called Queen Elizabeth two and general governor who represent the queen. The queens Privy Council is the organ that advises the sovereign or viceroy when exercising executive power. However, Canadian crown act as core or as the fundamental building block of its Westminster- style parliamentary democracy. The crown is the base of all branches of government of Canada. This organ of Canadian government includes executive, legislative and judicial. Other elements of the state are found in the Canadian constitution, which is composed of written decree sources, the court ruling and unwritten sources that were developed over centuries.


Governors general

Privy council office


Prime minister office


House of common


Prime minister


In this part, we concentrate on the overview of the Canadian government structures and function of all states organs. We are going to use a diagram to show Canadian government structures.

All the branches work together to govern Canada: the legislative, judiciary and executive organ. The administrative body is still known as the Government because it is decision building branch. The agency is defined by the constitution as the queen acting Privy Council. Also, Privy Council is made up of retired members of parliament, former chiefs justices, and other elderly political leaders. The aim of Privy Council directly guides the monarch and the government on how to carry out royal immunity duties. However, the primary function of the queen is to assure that democracy is respected (Mallory & Russell). The executive consists of the monarchy headed by the general governor, the prime minister, and the cabinet members.

The second organ is legislative branch, this branch that is entitled to making laws of the land and its made up of appointed senates and members who are elected in a house of commons. The Canadian parliament is bicameral legislature based on parliament hill in capital city Ottawa. The governor general is given the mandate to summon and appoint 105 senators with assistance from the prime minister. On the other hand, the citizen of Canada elect 338 members of House of Commons, each member serves different electoral districts for a given period that is binding by law, not exceeding four years. The general governors responsibilities are outlined in constitution act 1967; he is given the power to summon the parliament in the queens name.

The judicial branch is a vital organ in Canada because it is an independent court that interprets the law that was made by other two departments. The highest court in Canada is called Supreme Court; the court renders last judgment in all cases. The court is made up nine judges who are appointed by the governor general and endorsed by the prime minister. The court is headed by a chief justice who is mandated to hear appeals and setter cases from other appellate courts from the provinces and territories.


The constitution of Canada limits the power of the parliament; the constitution divides legislative abilities between the federal and provincial government. Regarding this, legal and provinces are only given the mandate to pass laws relating to the topic started out by the constitution, such as education, provincial officers, and municipal government. Any matter which is not within the legislative jurisdiction is placed under the scope of federal parliament power. Federalism regulates rational explanation; federalism combines a significant advantage in countries economy within the retention of regional control. All in all, federalism consists of four pillars.

In this section, we are going to discuss why Canadian government should use the public-private partnership to build infrastructure

The term public, private partnership entails cooperatives arrangement that involves different public and private sectors, primarily of long-term plans. However, for the last decade, different nations across the globe have joined with PPP to benefit from the arrangement. Public, private partnerships (PPP) enable the introduction of urgently needed infrastructure including the delivery of roads, rails, sewage treatment among other. The Canadian government needs this service because of some time it hard for the government to cover all areas. This partnership will ensure all places in Canada experience development. The public-private company allows government units to cope with increasing demands for high-quality public services by updating the available infrastructure.

According to United Nations Economic Council for Europe (UNECE), they have recognized that PPP has bridged the gap in public services becoming the phenomenon in spreading quality services around the globe. In contrast, public, private partnership combines the best world private organization with its resources, management skills and technology so that to provided notable changes to public sectors. When Canada government embraces PPP they public areas will experience growth and better services delivery across all sectors.

The Canadian government adopts PPP the public sector in Canada will harness the expertise and efficiencies that exist in private sectors. Another driving force is, PPP structured in the way that it can provide financial services to any public sector organization, so it does not incur any borrowing or seek any assistance from the Canadian government (Hodge & Carsten, 558). This aspect will help the ruling government to focus on essential issues concerning national development. However, the public sector will automatically gain from deferred cash flow. Roughly, the monetary value will be higher than usual traditional public financing; this fueled by private sector high cost of inventory. All in all, a monetary cost can be offset by individual organization efficiency retaining realized from the holistic approach to deliver the project or services. All in all, PPP may be more expensive in up front, but, PPP offers the government better way to deal with the inevitable budget overruns and construction delay. For example, no matter where you pass in Canada the government is constructing infrastructure. The latest example is the federal liberals election pledge to use almost 123 billion dollars on improving foundation for the next four years (Bird& Richard). They are benefits realized out by the government when their partner with public, private partnership.

With Aging infrastructure and high growth of population in urban Centres around the globe are putting the government pressure to meet the needs of a better public service and modern support. All stages of the Canadian government are facing significant deficits. These deficits are raising the need for government to turn to innovation solution so that to close the gap in development. Additionally, Canada is one of the nations that is enjoying the most efficient p3 market in the world, procurement under construction or running operations are approximately 215projects costing of over 60 billion dollars.

The Canadian government has benefited from p3s in infrastructure procurement: Canadas public, private partnership operations have been completed and delivered on time, on the budget, at a less expensive value compared to the previous budget plans. These aspects have contributed positively to economic growth and development of social amenities in Canada. According to VISTAS independent economic forecast have stated that p3s operations have created more than 276 000 direct jobs, producing approximately 19 million in immediate income. This p3s project has contributed to Canadian economic 25 billion dollars to the national domestic price (GDP). This move has saved Canadian taxpayers 9.9 dollars and in return generating 7.5 billion dollars in tax revenue ever financial year (Abdel & Ahmed, 913). This is enough facts that the government needs to embrace and adopt public-private partnership.

Discuss why government in Canada should not use Public, private partnership p3 to build infrastructure

Limitation of Public, Private Partnership with the Canadian Government

There is always need to for construction and repaired and maintenance of infrastructure. This comprises of wide range of projects: highways rapid transits Airports Bridge ports waterways energy and power school courthouse, recreation facilities and water and wastewater facilities. There are also public projects which are local/ municipal government provincial /state government or movement agencies

In the above section, we looked at the significance in which p3create value and benefits for the Canadians. While this importance can beneficial they come with cost, including higher transaction cost greater upfront planning demands and higher financing cost

Higher financing cost

Their reliance on private financing makes them expensive for the public sector. P3 are regularly criticized for this dependence because when the individual sectors borrow funds, it will always be costly than the governments risk-free borrowing rates.

High cost of transaction

Ps3 is usually made up of some firms called a corporate. These multiple partners while developing a project the demand high transaction fee because each partner incurs cost inform of analyst and advisors. The value originates from bidding and is therefore passed to the public sector. P3 transaction cost will always be higher than traditional government procurements.

Greater planning demands

Long-term nature of p3 requires significant investment in planning, analysis and the engagement with advisors of p3 expertise. Planning for the development of a project earlier, it assures that the needs that arise are understood and implemented. The cost incurred during planning is robust. P3 planning demand is beneficial to the public sector development, but it involved hundreds of millions in public funds.

Bidding and transaction cost of p3 projects are likely to be quite more celebrated for Canadian government than from the traditional government procurement process. The government incurs more cost in proposing and development of projects.

Financing some projects can be more comfortable than others if there is a technology that can reduce the cost of development or private sector demands and liability are defined. Some projects after completion will generate revenue in local currency like water projects while others like exports and ports will provide international money. Thus local finance market will be of less significance.

This private sector is always obliged to do what they had planned on the contract and nothing more. Thus the agreement should include incentives and performance requirements. More funds should be sourced from the public resources to pay for expenses that arise.

The government will be held accountable by its citizen, for the quality of services. The government will have to implement a regulatory body or agency to keep in check the p3 arrangements. It is essential f...

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