The advancement in the transplant of human organs has led to an increasing number of individuals in need of organ transplant and replacement. The issue leads to a problem in supply and demand, where people who need an organ transplant exceeds the organs available. The rich continue exploiting the poor as they excessively buy organs for transplant, making the business both illegal and unethical. Selling of human organs has become a primarily debated issue in the world today. Many countries today have legalized the market because they believe it is the only solution to rising cases of chronic diseases affecting millions of people worldwide. According to Nullis-Kapp (2004), the international trade in human organs has grown because of the growing demand and the availability of illegal human organ trafficking taking place across the globe. Consequently, health organization bodies such as the World Health Organization have called upon governments to establish legislations that aim at protecting those people who are at high risks of selling their body organs. The following essay analyses the causes and effects of selling human organs. The standard and approved methods of the human organ transplant have been affected by the rising illegal trade for human organs caused by the high rate of poverty, demand for human organs, and the widening of the black market.
Poverty is a global phenomenon that has affected a lot of people and continues to create significant impacts on the society to date. Organ trade is highly associated with poverty as people sell their body parts to gain financial freedom. Third world countries are most affected by wealthy traders who approach poor people and request for their organs in exchange for money. Organ trade takes place in almost every country in the world, with third world countries recording the highest number of trade. Parry analysed the role that poverty plays in organ trafficking and trade. According to the author, poverty remains the most common purpose that compels a person to sell his or her body parts. For example, research conducted in Bangladesh on illegal organ trade connected rich people seeking organ transplants with poor people willing to sell their organs in exchange for money (Parry, 2012).
On the other hand, low-income families across the world go to extreme measures to make money, irrespective of the consequences of the action. Many households have realized the potential of human organ trafficking trade on the black market that makes them earn money. Carrie Robinson conducted a series of studies to investigate the role of poverty in increasing the illegal organ trade. According to Robinson (2016), many countries, including the United Kingdom, have poor people willing to sell their body organs such as kidneys for cash. The high level of desperation contributes to such behaviours. Also, Iraq has a high number of people involved in the sale of human organs in the black market since almost 22 percent of the country's population live in poverty. The above evidence reveals nations need to look for solutions to poverty because no matter what policies and regulations are introduced to limit the human organ trade, people will continue selling their organs as long as they remain poor.
The advancement in human organ transplant technology contributes to an increase in the market for human organs in the world. The demand has consequently exceeded supply, forcing people in need of organs to approach individuals, requesting them to sell their organs in exchange for money. The political, technical, and public opinion from different nations have focused more on promoting organ donation to cope with the increasing demand for the products. The lack of a regulated process and the introduction of the black market that deals with illegal human organ trafficking increases the trade for human organs. The increasing demand for human organs outdoing the supply has opened doors for uncontrolled smuggling. The number of people in need of organ transplant increases by day, making it impossible to control organ trafficking (Nullis-Kapp, 2004). Organ trade is increasingly becoming the facet of globalization that has created trade freedom in the society. The number of human transplants increased tremendously since the first transplant in the early 1980s. Globalization expanded the market for human body parts because of the high rate of connectedness, giving traders ability to travel and communicate with people from all corners of the world. Additionally, the presence of advanced technologies and techniques for organ transplant increased the demand for human organ trade in the globalized world (Harrison, 1999).
The increasing demand for human organs contributes to the rise in the human organ trade, whereby those people in need of an organ transplant must produce a lot of money to get the organ. Historically, no individual had the property right in a human body, therefore; nobody had the authority to transfer body organs from one human to the other. However, an increase in the number of people in need for an organ transplant triggered the event, forcing needy people to seek alternative measures to access human organs. Initially, all human organs were donated, but as the demand grew people started selling their organs, leading to the rise in the organ trade. The market faces significant barriers from human right bodies and other international parties, but the current state of the market is irreversible. According to Frederick (2010), the United States of America record thousands of individuals who die each year because of the lack of organs. The only solution to the increasing demand for organs is to increase the supply by allowing more people to sell their organs. The approach not only increases the quantity, but also helps people
Human organ trafficking is a major urban crime that goes unpunished in most parts of the world. The trafficking of human organs is a form of organized crime, where both the seller and the buyer engage in a hidden trade process referred to as the black market. A suggestion that human organs should be purchased and sold on a regulated market never succeeded because many traders opted for the illegal selling, leading the expansion of the black market. Jared argued that standards of human rights should be increased, bearing in mind that human organs are bloody commodities and any trade involving such products fuels a global criminal economy. The government seems to put little efforts to punish offenders in the black market, leading to the rise in the trade. According to Bowden (2013), the high demand for human organs, especially in countries that are developed like the United States, has accelerated the growth of the black-market economy for organ trafficking and trade. The trade continues to deprive innocent people their rights to life.
Scutti (2013) claimed that traders in the black market obtain organs from dead bodies, insane people, and even healthy people to overcome the increasing demand for organs. The rising number of people engaging in black market activities causes an increase in the trade for human organs. Additionally, black markets for human organs have developed in many developing countries, giving opportunities for the poor to make a living. Also, the wealthy people exploit the poor, with some ending up selling organs just to feed their family because of desperation (Jared, 2011). Governments, especially those from third world nations, have created strategies to promote the donation of organs through a presumed consent system, but the persisting global organ shortage prevents the implementation of these policies (Bowden, 2013). Consequently, patients seeking organs look for other means to obtain organs. Eventually, black markets came into existence to cope with the high demand for human organs (Ambagtsheer, 2017).
The human organ trade has affected the traditional method of human organ donation. Organ transplant is a modern and advanced method of dealing with organ failure that finds application worldwide. The World Health Organization defined organ shortage as a universal problem and recommends that all countries should come up with an organ donation program to ensure those in need of the transplant receive their benefits on time. However, the introduction of human organ trade market affected such programs, despite many countries prohibiting the purchase and sale of human organs. For example, Egypt bans organ donation from deceased people. An organ trade was internationally developed because of low organs supply. Potential recipients would travel to foreign countries for an organ transplant through a commercial transaction. The introduction of the black market and the rise in poverty levels led to many countries engaging in illegal selling of organs affecting the international organ trade (Shimazono, 2007).
The standard and approved methods of the human organ transplant have been affected by the rising illegal trade for human organs, caused by the high rate of poverty, demand for human organs, and the widening of the black market. Policies have been introduced across the world to legalize donation of human organs rather than selling them because of the increasing number of people in need of an organ transplant. However, the high rate of poverty among citizens, especially people from developing countries forces them to sell organs to wealthy recipients. Additionally, the analysis reveals the high demand for organs exceeding the supply as a primary cause of rising illegal human organ trade. Finally, the growth of the black market has led to more people engaging in the illicit trade for human organs. The demand for human organs (liver and kidney) is expected to rise in the future, therefore governments should create strategies for dealing with illegal human organ trade to ensure observation of human rights and save lives.
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