The article under critique was written by Muhamad Saufiyudin Omar, Hashim Fadzil Ariffin, and Rozila Ahmad. The title of the article is Service Quality, Customers Satisfaction and the Moderating Effects of Gender: A Study of Arabic Restaurants. The title is appropriate and clear. The reason is, the title of the article gives an insight of what the article contains in a brief statement.
A good abstract should contain background information, methods, results, conclusions, and miscellaneous observations in the respective order. The abstract of the article under critique adheres to this format. The abstract is specific as it gives the exact information, for instance, the precise number of people who participated in a quantitative study conducted. The abstract is also representative of the article. It gives a summary of what the article entails, which is the type of method used, the most important findings, and the overall opinion presented in the article. Concerning the relationship between service quality and customers satisfaction together with moderating effects of gender, the opinion presented by the abstract is that there is need to improve responsiveness and be aware of the role gender plays in customer satisfaction for Arabic restaurants. It is take-home message that the abstract gives, which is a feature of one that is good. The abstract is also in the correct format. It contains all the required sections. It also does not contain any citations. The articles abstract is specific, representative of the article and is in the correct form it should be.
The introduction of the article states the purpose of the article. It gives three aims of the article which is to study the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction, to establish which attributes influence customer satisfaction most, and to examine the moderating effect of gender between the quality of services, and customer satisfaction in Arabic restaurants.
Some of the background information provided in the introduction is not relevant to the topic under discussion. Information regarding the patterns of tourism activities in other regions apart from Malaysia and other Arabic countries is not relevant to this particular. It could be applicable only in enabling one see the importance of the topic, but not necessarily be related to the topic itself.
The literature review section of the article comprises of a broad review of many diverse literary sources. Many different kinds of literature were utilized in research on the various aspects of the topic including customer satisfaction, service quality, attributes of service quality, and moderating variables. Despite the literature review being broad and expansive, it is focused. For instance, regarding service quality, the authors compare the various perspectives from different sources to determine the universal definition of the term service. The literature review uses different sources to expound on the topic, giving the various ideas from a vast selection of sources, to create a better understanding of the topic under examination. The ideas presented build on each other. The impact of this is that the literature review is expansive and focused at the same time.
The literature review uses a theoretical framework. From the literature review, the researcher identified the various independent variables consisting of empathy, assurance, responsiveness, reliability, and tangibles, all of which are positively related to customers satisfaction.
The research method used was a sample and questionnaire design. The population that took part in the research comprised of individuals that received or patronized services from Arabic restaurants in Selangor, Shah Alam, and Malaysia. 600 questioners were issued out, and 411 were returned giving a 68.5 percent return which is deemed appropriate. The reason for choosing this method and the number of participants involved is that the method is the most straightforward method from which one can get feedback from a given group of people. The number of people who participated is justified by Roscoes proposition that sample size should be between 30-500 people for the given population size (Omar, Ariffin & Ahmad, 2016).
The SERQUAL model was utilized in the measurement of the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. The basis of this instrument design is the three dimensions of customer satisfaction and the five dimensions of service quality. The questionnaire was divided into three sections based on this, making the study more suitable. A five-point Likert scale was used to determine customers satisfaction ranging from I strongly agree to I strongly disagree. DeVelllis supported this method as also used the same to assess customer satisfaction and service quality (Omar, Ariffin & Ahmad, 2016).
The collection of data for the study was appropriate. It was ensured that the respondents fulfilled all the requirements such as having the experience of services in Arabic restaurants in the regions of interest. A Cronbachs Alpha was used to ensure reliable instruments. These two which tested the methods reliability and validity were explained in detail. Correlation analysis and hierarchical regression were also used in the collection of data. The statistical package was used for data analysis. It can be inferred that the methods used for data collection and analysis were appropriate for this study.
The only limitation of the study is it did not come with measures to ensure that the sample is representative of the population. The chosen respondents ought to have been derived from different walks of life and age groups.
Results and Findings
The results obtained were relevant to the research question. The results presented indicated a quantified measure of the various attributes of service quality about customer satisfaction. The measure is relevant to the research question which was to determine the same. Also, the results demonstrated the effect of gender moderations on customer satisfaction. It revealed that female customers were more concerned about the employees, regarding the treatment they received from them, unlike the men.
The steps involved in data analysis were well explained and justified. The two methods used were the Pearson correlation and hierarchical multiple regression. The two were explained in detailed and the reason for their use justified. The Pearson correlation results were essential to show the relationship between independent variables. Hierarchical multiple regression served to indicate which attributes were significant.
The tables presented in the results make the data analysis clearer. Just by looking at the figures in the tables, one can be able to deduce the necessary observations made by the study. For instance, by looking at table 1, you can infer that assurance is the most substantial positive correlation to customers satisfaction.
The result has been discussed concerning the research question. The moderating effects of gender that influence customer satisfaction most and the relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality have been discussed.
The results obtained are useful and relevant in practice. The restaurants had the knowledge of what attributes mostly influence customers satisfaction will enable them to improve on the same. Knowing their weaknesses will help them know what areas they need to improve on. It was established that empathy and assurance positively impacted on customers satisfaction the most, that restaurants least satisfied their customers regarding reliability and responsiveness. From the results, female customers are more concerned about the treatment they receive from employees compared to male customers and are therefore more likely to express higher satisfaction compared their male counterparts. The restaurants can use this information to ensure that they maintain and improve the positive feedback from female customers and also improve the satisfaction of male customers by determining what their concern is.
The research highlighted the most important results. It is the most important aspects of service quality and how they impact on customer satisfaction. Also, the difference in customer satisfaction between the two genders was discussed.
The main points have been drawn out in conclusion. The main points include the findings of the research question, the effectiveness of the methods used in the research, and any limitations that the study may have.
The recommendations and suggestions for future research are stated in conclusion. It is suggested that in future, the research should specify whether the restaurants were high end or low end and that in the future the research should utilize sampling techniques to collect data.
All the sources are apparently cited in the article. All citations adhere to APA style, and in the literature review section, the citations are in parentheses as is required. The bibliography also adheres to APA guidelines.
Omar, M., Ariffin, H., & Ahmad, R. (2016). Service Quality, Customers Satisfaction and the Moderating Effects of Gender: A Study of Arabic Restaurants. Procedia - Social And Behavioral Sciences, 224, 384-392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.393
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