Question 1: How does the insulin and glucagon secreted by the pancreas function in glucose metabolism?
Glucagon and insulin work synergistically to keep blood glucose concentration normal. Insulin is secreted when blood glucose concentration is elevated. Glucagon on the other hand is secreted when blood glucose level is low below normal. Insulin increases glucose uptake in muscle and fat by triggering the translocation of the intracellular glucose transporter. To the plasma membrane. Additionally, insulin controls the high blood glucose level by stimulating the storage of glycogen and fat in the liver and muscle as well as adipose tissues. Glucagon on the other hand, stimulates hepatic glucose production.
Cardiovascular SystemBlood flows through the body in two distinct pathways: the pulmonary pathway and the systemic pathway. The blood flowing in the pulmonary pathway is deoxygenated, and it delivers this blood to the lungs to be oxygenated again. The blood flowing in the systemic pathway leaves the lungs full of oxygen and flows through the heart to be delivered to the body tissues.
Instructions: Complete the following table to demonstrate the correct order for the pulmonary and systemic circulation as you trace a drop of blood through the body.
Pulmonary Circulation Systemic Circulation
Right ventricle Left ventricle
Pulmonary artery Arteries (aorta)
Capillaries Tissue capillaries
Pulmonary veins Veins (venacava)
Left atrium Right atrium
Question 2: How do the cardiovascular and respiratory system work together to deliver blood to the body tissues?
The cardiovascular and respiratory system work together in that they both play distinct roles to ensure that they deliver blood to the body tissues. The cardiovascular particularly provides the means through which oxygen is transported from the lungs to all body tissues. The cardiovascular is incorporated with both the pulmonary circulation and systematic circulation to provide the pathway for blood thus to supply oxygen to body tissues.
The respiratory system on the other hand allows for the absorption of oxygen from air in to the lungs and eventually in to the blood stream. The respiratory system contains organs such as the lungs and the nose among other organs that allow for inhalation and exhalation thus oxygen can be taken into the blood stream. It is this oxygen that is later on transported by the cardiovascular system.
Respiratory SystemExercising is an activity that requires the actions of multiple body organ systems. Each system performs its specific tasks, but all of the systems must work together to allow effective total body function during exercising.
Using the lab activity, observe and record the physiologic changes that occur during exercising using the following chart:
Activity Breathing Rate: bpm(breaths per minute) Pulse Rate: bpm (beats per minute)
Jumping 24 breaths/minute 84 beats/minute
Push ups 30 breaths/minute 96 beats/minute
Jogging 28 breaths/minute 78 beats/minute
Seat ups 25 breaths/minute 80 beats/minute
Question 3: The body experiences some stressor like exercise, fright, or emotional stress whether it is joy or sorrow. There are certain hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced during these stressful events. These hormones are produced by the adrenal gland, and they will have an effect on the heart rate and breathing rate. Explain how the hormones produced by the adrenal could play a role in altering the respiratory and heart rates during exercise.
Hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced during these stressful events and they trigger an increase in the pulse rate and breathing rate. Stressful events trigger the production of cortisol by the adrenal which is in response to the stressful event and help in metabolism. Aldosterone also serves the purpose of controlling blood pressure and during stressful events the body sees the need to produce more energy. Thus more production of aldosterone, cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Adrenaline is also produced in large amounts to help the body manage stressful events thus the increased heart rate and breathing rate.
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