LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: The writing process chapter objectives, assessments & activities.17
1.1 Background of the Study
Basically, the course objectives and visions for students taking the flipped writing and research skills course include, construction of learning goals, specifically associated with writing. In doing so, Finks taxonomy of significant learning goals was adopted as a means of constructing the learning framework. As much as other taxonomies are effective in capturing aspects such as the cognitive domain that covers understanding and remembering facts, as well as the application of knowledge to situations through the analysis and evaluation of elements while also interacting with them as needed, most of these taxonomies are limited in the development of the learning process for students (Fink, 2003).
Finks taxonomy became paramount for the study as it extended the lesson goals into an inquiry-based learning approach of concepts, which enables the students to take part in an engaged classroom discussion with their peers and instructor thereby becoming active participants in the learning community (Fink, 2003). This process enabled students to seek guidance whenever they needed it both at the classroom level as well as in the extended learning community. Finks taxonomy enables the capture of significant learning goals. The use of Finks taxonomy focused on addressing what the students would remember at the end of the course, as well as the experiences that the students would have in the learning of pre-writing that would persist upon the completing of the course. Responding to these issues requires a thorough process focused on a flipped writing and research skills courses in the long term (Berrett, 2012).
Finks taxonomy indicates that change is a critical part of learning. Therefore, the occurrence of learning depends on the learner achieving a certain level of change in the learning process. Therefore, there would be no learning without change. Finks taxonomy outlines a total of six categories that are used in the assessment of course content and higher order thinking (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). These taxa include Foundational Knowledge, Application, Integration, Human Dimension, Caring, and Learning How to Learn. The category of Foundation Knowledge includes all the information and content the instructor extends to the student for learning. The foundation knowledge provided was meant to serve as the baseline of the aspects of learning of which the instructor wants the student to gain knowledge (Fink, 2003).
The application category is used in the development of some level of action on the part of the student. The application part also includes the skills the instructor believes are critical, for development by the student as they will be cruel in the learning process (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). Integration is useful in enabling the development of intellectual power by the students as they become able to see the manner in which ideas and concepts are interwoven. In addition, integration is used in the making of connections between the student and their world both outside and inside the school, On the other hand, the Human Dimension provides the student with an opportunity to learn important things about themselves throughout the course. The fulfillment of the Human Dimension during the learning process is crucial in enabling the student to have a better comprehension of themselves and others in relation to leaning, which allows for effective interaction with others. The Caring taxon provides the student with the opportunity to develop interests, feelings, and values through the learning experience (Fink, 2003). The achievement of this taxon enables the student to investigate topic later on their own to make the learning process a part of the lives. The last taxon, which is Learning How to Lean, enables the student to gain knowledge about aspects of the learning process. The student can gain knowledge of means through which developing a more effective student can be achieved by engaging in best work and practices in the learning situation (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001).
The categories indicate above provide the framework for the development of broad course goals in the design of a flipped course (Fink, 2003). The development process of the course made sure that the broad course goals for is met as outlined by the English discipline at the institution. Table 1 depicts each of the single goals within Finks taxonomy within the context of the writing process. This is one of the many chapters covered in the flipped course.
Table 1: The writing process chapter objectives, assessments & activities
Learning Objectives Assessment Activities Learning Activities
Foundational Knowledge Students will identify the steps of the writing process.
Students will identify techniques to generate ideas in the pre-writing stage.
Students will identify the parts of an essay.
Students will identify the parts of a paragraph.
Students will identify the types of introductions and conclusions of an essay.
Students will know how to revise and edit their essay.
Do practice exercises about prewriting techniques, writing topics sentences and introduction and conclusion.
Do practice exercises about each of the revising and editing steps of the writing process; unity, coherence, sentence skills and support
Quizzes Students watch narrated power point explaining the prewriting techniques.
Students watch a video about the writing process.
Students watch movies about each essay part and types of introductions and conclusions.
Application Students will analyze which prewriting technique they would personally use and will explain why.
Students evaluate thesis statement, topic sentences and essays. Students describe what they think of the prewriting techniques introduced in the link.
Students describe which prewriting technique they would personally use.
Students evaluate how effective an essay is (rubric) and reflect on each others evaluation.
Students watch a video/ recorded dialogue about how effective an essay is.
Integration Students will compare and contrast the writing process in the English class to the process across other disciplines.
Students reflect on the writing process and explain if they think another stage should be added to the writing process and how the process varies across writing projects and disciplines.
Students watch a video explaining the writing process.
Human Dimension Students will identify with writers after understanding the effort done to write.
Identify how writers feels towards the writing process
Students will value and respect writers struggles.
Students analyze and evaluate what writers say about the writing process and post their analysis in discussion board. Students read what 2 writers say about the writing process and outline the struggles these writers go through to write and refine (revise & edit) their writing.
http://writingcenter.gmu.edu/articles/9215(link which includes what writers say about the craft)
Caring Students will appreciate the writing process and want to apply it their own writing. Students reflect in their journal (can be online blog) how their attitude towards the writing process changed.
to Learn Students will engage in inquiry and construct knowledge about how they as writers can refine their writing techniques and grew as writers.
Pretend you are a writer yourself and write what quirks you personally have to write and come up with a plan to improve your writing techniques. Students read what other writers do as part of their writing ritual.
http://www.nownovel.com/blog/the-writing-process/(link which leads students to learn about their own quirks)
Upon developing the significant learning goals, the course development process creates learning activities and assessments that would form key course components that would focus on the significant learning goals.
The description of the components of the flipped course for writing is necessary (Rosenberg, 2013). For students to move toward significant learning and for instructions to achieve their significant learning goals, it was necessary to include certain components. These included pre-writing units watching videos or recordings and watching PowerPoint presentations about writing techniques. Others included accessing online resources and reading, practicing the application of the acquired information, participating in discussions, interacting with works by other students and answering discussion questions (Fink, 2003).
The introduction of the unit was used as a way to encourage participation in the flipped course by ensuring that it is different from the traditional ways of teaching. The introduction of the students to the course expectations, the technology that would be used the structure of the course, and specific assignments that students needed to complete before the class meeting was seen as an effective way of preparing the students for a more engaging course. According to Fink (2003), setting up high expectations creates a self-fulfilling project as students begin to rise to the demands placed on them. Therefore, the introduction of the course was aimed at setting up a high tone for the course to ensure that students would begin to accept their role as active learners, as opposed to passive learners. Generally, writing assignments were a necessary including for the flipped Writing and Research Skills course. The students needed to complete these assignments ahead of the next class. This component of the course represented the foundational knowledge for the significant learning goals. Writing encompasses a review of the content from the books. A short writing activity, video lectures and other virtual explorations. The pre-writing exercises assigned to students detail the overview of important topics to be covered, resources for reading, learning objectives, viewing class materials and guided questions to be completed by students (Pink, 2010).
The completion of the preliminary work by students gives them the baseline for class discussions. Students engage in peer-instruction during class time, a process with involves thinking or unpacking deeply about important concepts. The human dimension is included in this component of the course. Other concepts included in this component include caring and learning how to learn. Cr...
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