Validity refers to the trustworthiness of research. The first thing we need to ask our self is, "validity of what?" when we think in the line of validity, mostly, people think about research components. We were ere able to say that a measure is valid or that a logical result obtained. But as a matter of fact, all of the statements are not correct as samples, designs and actions do not have validity. Therefore, only prepositions can be said to be valid (Trochim, 2006). There are two aspects of validity, which are, internal validity and external validity. Internal validity refers to the instruments which are applied in the research to measure if the outcome proves what the study was supposed to regulate. For example, people are taken through war photos and asked how their feelings were changed by the pictures, in turn, they reply that the photographs were very upsetting and in this case the images are said to be bearing good internal validity (Gronlund, 1998).
In external validity, the outcomes can be generalized past the next study. For one to have an external research, should apply the rule of reading ahead of time than cramming for exams. Several methods vary as related to the internal and external aspects of validity. Experiments, since they seem to be planned and controlled, are always high in internal validity (Henseler, 2015). However, when structure and control are considered, the strength of the external validity might be low. The result might be limited as to prevent generalizing to other situations. In contrast, researchers related to observations have got high external validity since it has taken place in the real world(Gronlund, 1998).However, the existence of so many uncontrolled variables may lead to low internal validity hence it will be not easy to determine the variables affecting the variables.
There two categories of validity, criterion-related and content related. Content related includes face validity, which is the least complicated measure of validity. Measurement of face validity is done directly by asking concerned persons to rate the validity of a test as they come out (McLeod, 2013).
Construct validity also falls under the category of content related, a construct is an intellectual, psychological property. The construct validity refers to the extent to which a specific test tends to capture a specific trait and structure, and it overlaps with the other aspects of validity. Construct validity is about the high-level questions of whether the test score interpretations are continuous with a homological network as far as theoretical and observational terms. The phenomenon being tested must be proved to in existence to run a test of construct validity (McLeod, 2013).
Concurrent validity falls under the category of the criterion-related group; is defined as the extent that the test corresponds to an external criterion known to be occurring at the same time. If the validity of a new trial as proved in comparison to the currently existing standard, then there is concurrent validity. Valid study skills should be well centered with observation carefully of actual study skills (McLeod, 2013). Validity must be inferred from various sources of evidence. Validity is specific to a particular assessment purpose. Validity is not a property of an assessment instrument itself, but of inferences drawn by an assessment. Research, therefore, depends on its validity for general acceptance in the schools of thought. A research whose validity is in question is not likely to be welcomed as knowledge for reference in future.
Gronlund (1998). Validity and Reliability. In Assessment of Student Achievement, Allyn, and Bacon, Boston.
Hattie, J. and Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1). 81-112.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.
McLeod, S. (2013). What is Validity? Retrieved December 05, 2017, from mere psychology.
Trochim, W. M. (2006, October 20). The Introduction to Validity. Retrieved December 05, 2017, from center for social research methods.
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