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Application of Traditions in Reports on Elements in Communications

3 pages
597 words
University of California, Santa Barbara
Type of paper: 
Research paper
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The process of communication is an interpersonal process that occurs in stages. According to (Makoul, 2001), In order to have an effective communication process between two or more people, there are certain elements that have to be present. In this paper, we are going to discuss the element in communication that arises from using tradition and using a psychological type of communication. In this paper, the individual is the element of the communication process. It will discuss the impact of the individual on the communication process using the theory of rhetoric tradition which basically is the art of persuasion. It will discuss the impact of psychological type on an individual as the element of communication, and how this results in lack of feedback as an issue in communication.

An element in communication is the basic unit through which the communication process takes place. Makoul states that the individual is the first stage in the communication process as he/she dictates the message to be sent, its nature and mode of delivery. Also known as sender the individual will decode the message taking into consideration the receiver of the message. The manner in which the message will be decoded will determine whether the feedback will be received or not.

The theory of rhetoric tradition is the study of the act of using public speech to persuade a certain listener to a particular course of action or mode of thinking (Craig & Muller,2007). The theory uses logical, ethical and emotional proof to persuade the listener. Persuasion is among the major motives for the communication process, and rhetoric tradition discusses the factors that contribute to the persuasion process. The individual element is impacted by rhetoric traditions as the traditions dictate the nature of the message and the mode of delivery. A good example of this is when a sender tries to convince a receiver to help him/her to move a certain desk. In this case, the sender will need to apply the various persuasion techniques discussed above. In rhetoric, tradition feedback is very important as it shows the success rate of the communication process. In order for the process to be complete feedback has to be present.

Psychological types are the categories to which functions of the brain are characterized while interacting with their environment. McGuire (1968) says psychological type dictates the mode of conversation that is going to take place between individuals. An example is that the communication between individuals belonging to introverted intuition psychological type is likely to be less verbal because this individual focus on controlling their internal environment, that is, their emotions and thoughts. Extraverted individuals, on the other hand, are more likely to communicate more because they focus on the external environment. The psychological type to which the individual belongs to will, therefore, affect the nature of the communication that will take place. The psychological type of the individual will determine the medium through which the feedback will be delivered.

Lack of feedback is an issue in communication. As discussed above the communication process is a complex process that is dictated by the individual using his/her mode of persuasion and affected by their psychological type and that of the receiver. For the process to be efficient, all of these factors have to be linked and executed appropriately.



McGuire, W. J. (1968). Personality and attitude change: An information-processing theory. Psychological foundations of attitudes, 171-196.

Craig, R. T., & Muller, H. L. (Eds.). (2007). Theorizing communication: Readings across traditions. Sage.

Makoul, G. (2001). Essential elements of communication in medical encounters: the Kalamazoo consensus statement. Academic Medicine, 76(4), 390-393.


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