The debate on human needs to protect the environment at the expense of economic growth has taken twist over the years with various opposing groups advocating for their ideologies. Anti-environmentalists protection groups argue that climate change is an ideological choice and giving the government authority to address it would result in damaged economy and subverted human freedom. Not to mention, they advocate for human change instead of climate change, and that the development of gas and oil fuels contribute to human development as well as economic growth. The ideologies of the conservative charities facilitated the move by President Trump to exit from Paris climate accord which aimed to reduce global warming. Trump in his statement announced that to fulfill my solemn duty to protect America and its citizens, the United States of America will withdraw from the Paris climate accord. (OHarrow, Robert, 1). Ebell who had led the Cooler Heads Coalitions public charities, a nongovernmental organization that has termed climate science hoax and environmentalists global-warming alarmists, had launched campaigns to belittle the gravity of climate change and influenced government efforts to address climate change. It is by his efforts that President Trump made a move.
School 1 Perspective
The Marxist theory is based on three contexts that are examination of current and past society involving dialectical capitalism and historical capitalism. Second is the social model against a society based on the exploitation and divided social classes that entail ownership of the means of production where human potentials are allowed to the freedom to accumulate wealth and thirdly struggle and class domination (Rush, 8). Marxist theory of capitalism arguments is based on the political economy and the power of capitalism to shape human life and the various forms of social oppression. It further purports that the society members are both producer and products of the society and that through their actions, people create the society. The tension of conflict arises from capitalism.
Cooler Heads Coalitions ideologies are based on capitalism, and their efforts seek to further the agenda of coal and oil companies from where they get millions of dollars of their funding. America tops the list of major polluters in the world; their withdrawal from being accountable to environmental pollution that results from her coal and oil companies seeks to encourage the accumulation of wealth at the expense of the life of millions in the universe. Besides, Ebell admits that climate change is occurring and that human being has to the role in it. Despite his lack of knowledge in science, he dismisses the scientist and climate researchers as individuals who are only after government grants. (OHarrow, Robert, 3).
According to Carl Marx, capitalism leads to exploitation of the working middle class as well as the conflict in the representation of the lawmakers and authorities. The wealthy own lawmakers and media and have influence in politics regarding who to represent their interest. They own the media. As a way of reducing government regulations on the tobacco industry, Frontiers approach to the campaign that aimed to make it politically easier for a legislature to frustrate new laws by educating and motivating local activists to change political dynamics to make it politically impossible for major laws (Rush, 2). It thus portrays the society Marx is describing, a society where capitalist own, amass wealth and control virtually everything without considering the life of other community members. The article points out the plan of Trump to bail out the Oil companies using taxpayers money. It is very unfortunate for the Americans to fall within the Marxist description of a capitalist society where the little income the majority poor community own is used to subsidies projects operated by the rich. One would wonder what goes on in the minds of the conservatives when they argue that global warming is good when Ebell another associate of Cooler Head planned to convince the public that global warming was just a mere speculation of scientists who are out of touch with the reality.
School II Perspective
Elite theory propagated by Pareto, Mosca, Mills, and Domhoff takes a different perspective that is opposed to the views of Marxists and Neo- Marxists. The theorists argue that every society throughout history has a small group of political elites who rule and the remaining larger population that is ruled. They also assert that the political elite has multiple ways of exercising dominance including wealth accumulation, military force superior personal qualities, and religious leadership. Besides, the elite can retain power through superior organization skill that is available in small groups which can enable it easily to stop the masses from accessing political power.
When Trump opted out of Paris climate accord, he did not do it for the general public neither did he do it as he claimed on fostering economic growth, but for the few elites who own oil and coal companies that through conservatives were pushing against global warming regulations. The elites with their ability to organize for small groups to prevent a course that is against that would affect them and funds groups to prevent such regulations. (OHarrow, Robert, 2). The Cooler Heads Coalition that was led by Ebell was a group of conservatives who got their funds from oil and coal companies to campaign against the scientist who advocated dangers of global warming. As explained in the article, the objective of Cooler Heads Coalition was to counter the myths of global warming by exposing flawed economic, scientific, and risk analysis. (OHarrow, Robert, 1).As Brulle notes that public charities are not independent think tanks as they claim in offering analysis to create an impression that they are independent. They represent the third party voices and that it has become the norm through which modern politics operate. Brulles observations confirm Elite theory which explains that the few wealthy elites use small groups to prevent the passing of certain laws. The article also notes that donors would help finance charities behind the most audacious endeavor of Ebells career: the fight against climate change. Elite theory tries to give the society a different perspective to accept the socialeconomical differences in class level, their influence on politics and societal ideologies. It suggests that there can never be equality and the idea of liberals or democracy has its limits. The few elites will still have control over the majority in the society.
The capitalist in the society has control over decisions made in the society. After all, they have wealth to protect. The imbalance in social classes in the society dates back to time immemorial. However, our wealth can never be safe when the environment is sick. President Trump should have considered continuing with the plan to protect the environment and not to bow to pressure from the few conservatives whose main agenda is to acquire more wealth at the expenses the global health.
Kakkar, Shiva. "Elite Theory: A Review and Revival." (2016).
Rush, Michael. Politics & Society. Routledge, 2014.
OHarrow, Robert. 2017. A two-decade crusade by conservative charities fueled Trumpsexit from Paris climate accord. Washington Post, September 5. Available:http://tinyurl.com/SOC182-WaPo2
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