The first respondent in the September 11th attack was 34 year old James Zadroga who succumbed in 2006 due to the toxic Ground Zero substances. Others include Cesar Borja, a veteran of the NYPD, and Detective Robert Williamson, 46; the respondent worked under the hazardous condition that led to health problems such as lung diseases and cancers that were caused by the direct contact to the Ground Zero dust at the World Trade Center site.
The exterior walls of the Twin Tower of the World Trade Center were designed to endure the force by the hurricane wind. The initial calculation that was made by the engineers regarding the design for the structural resistance consisted the collision of a small jet plane; although, the engineers' considerations for the calculations were not inclusive of the effects of the jet fuel. The section of the floor was made up of the lightweight, open-web tethers that crossed the central to the outer wall. The cylinder-shaped, hollow steel bind members between 11/2 and 15/inches diameter. The floor was made up of the fourth inch thick lightweight concrete on the 11/2 inch 22-gauge no composite steel deck. The impact made by the plan was evident on the exterior load-bearing of the building structures and many floors together with the core area (stairs and elevators). The first aircraft hit through the 93 to 98 floors of the North Tower, though it did not devastate the load-bearing columns close to the corner of the building. Then the second aircraft crashing lower the 78 to 83 floors of the South Tower, destroyed load-bearing columns adjacent to the building's corner. The engineering evaluation shows the points of impacts and the heights had the significant bearing during the collapse. The engineering agencies agreed that the load-bearing structural elements were flawlessly performed, maybe it would have continued to withstand for undetermined time beyond the definite collapse times. Despite the following fires subsequent to the impact attacked the frivolous binds to the extent that the bolted bonds to the columns weakened, leading to the gradual, devastating collapses.
The corporate profits of taxation in the United States (US) have been amongst the highly discussed aspect of the field of public finance. The Corporate revenues are presently an aspect of double taxation. The profits are taxed initially at the corporate level and finally after being disbursed as dividends or when the gains of capital are obtained and taxed a second time at the personal level. The International Revenue Service (IRS) is a U.S. government agency obliged for the enforcement and implementation of tax laws as well as the collection of the taxes. Developed in 1862 by Abraham Lincoln who served as the then president of the US, the agency conducts its operations through the authority in the United States Department of Treasury and its primary objective is inclusive of the collection of the personal employment tax in conjunction with income tax (Graf & Koehler, 2000). Furthermore, the IRS is responsible for handling corporate exercise, gift, and the estate taxes. Individuals colloquially designate the IRS as the "Tax Man."
In the financial year of 2009, In governing the Department of the Treasury, the US Congress approved $12.624 billion of the "discretionary budget authority, whereby $11.522 billion was precisely for the IRS. The 2011 estimated budget for that financial year was $12.633 billion, which was 44% of the amount collected was contributed by individual income tax. Indeed, this was because of the nature of the individual tax group, having tax gathered from the small business, working class, as well as the capital gain. Additionally, 38.28% of the gathered federal tax came from the 5% of the income earners. Given the projected amount by IRS in 2007, shows that the United States Treasury is owed $354 billion, which exceeds the amount IRS collects at the end of every financial year. The tax returns filling that were recorded in2011 were 234 million, whereby, IRS collected$2.4 trillion out of anticipated $354 billion which were due to fraud and mistake.
The IRS started to outsource their services in 2011, whereby they the private tax collectors were assigned to collect debts. Those who did not pay their tax correctly were told to surrender their personal information to the assigned debt collector's agencies (DOE, 2012).
The agencies were being paid between 29% to 39% of the amount that they will collect. The noncompliance taxpayers were the concern with the percentage commission the agencies were being paid; they argue that this will encourage exertion of force by the debt collector agencies. In response to that, the statement was released by the IRS spokesperson, Terry Lemons, stated that new system "is a sound, balanced program that respects taxpayers' rights and taxpayer privacy." Furthermore, some claimed that the hired debt collectors urgencies also hired other local debt collector agencies.
IRS retreated with their new plan of outsourcing their services in March 2009, the contracts for the debt collection agencies were never renewed again. Instead, they introduced new form, whereby through their call site and processing center, they will hire personnel across the country who will internal process the collection of the tax from the taxpayers (Order, & Individual, 2003).
It is advised that IRS officials should not only use force to collect the tax, but also to streamline their regulatory and policies to gain the public trust and have accountability. Once people gain confidence in the IRS services, they will volunteer to give genuine information and comply with the tax policies.
SOREDI is deeply associated with the development agenda of Oregon communities; they have regular meetings involving various business development sectors that operate in the region. They offer not only moral advice to the business communities, but also the materials and financial support. In summary, the significance of SOREDI in issues with corporates includes the following:
Access to capital; they offer direct loans as well as the loan guarantee programs that will help in developing the business scale ad growth alongside the working capital.
Global trade; Oregon being the global competitor, it connects the companies in Oregon with the customers in the extensive markets who live outside the US and bring new revenue into the state together with attracting the new investors.
Innovation/Entrepreneurship; SOREDI works at providing the entrepreneurial-friendly environment as it propels the innovation across various industries and business stages.
SOREDI conducts periodical quality research to gather information and data that helps in coming up with effective and practical business decisions. They have gathered analytical and helpful data resources and reports for the sake of the analysis s and research needs. The data and information are presented in the form of charts and graphs. They are divided into economic reports, State Data Comparison Tool, Industry Initiatives and Strategic Partnerships and Economic Data.
This research study will have a critical focus on the following Research Questions:
The extent to which taxpayers cheat on their returns,
Reasons for cheating, together with the approach applicable to address this behavior.
To understand taxpayers experience and fulfillment with various IRS services
To develop an accurate profile of taxpayers behavior relative to the preparation of their income tax returns.
To evaluate taxpayers views and knowledge on different tax procedures and laws.
They show the Oregon demographics, employment, exports, wages, industry report, access to capital, infrastructure, business environment, regional reports, international reports, telecommunications, and workforce.
The SOREDI partners with the economic and industrial development associates on the main initiatives such as the Pacific Northwest Manufacturing Partnership, the Trade and Logistics Initiative, and the Oregon Food and Beverage Industry Roadmap.
SOREDI have the data and information of Oregon that will be helpful for the IRS decision making on the taxation and returns issues.
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