Background, Literature Review and Study Purpose
In the background of their study, Lewis, Corley, Lake, Brockopp, and Moe (2015) focus on the ineffective pain management during hospitalization, which continues to be a challenging experience for millions of patients in the acute care setting. In this background, the authors show the high number of discharged patients from critical care who report poor control of pain during hospitalization, approximately 68% of discharged patients from acute care facilities reported on the Healthcare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Survey. The assessment and management of pain in critical care are challenging mainly because patients in intensive care are often unconscious and therefore, unable to self-report. Also, the nurses may lack exposure to evidence-based assessment tools and awareness regarding pain management leading to underassessment and inadequate pain management. Similarly, previous studies asserted that nurses lack of knowledge and their biases toward specific patient populations such as drug addicts concerning the management of pain are thought to contribute to inadequate pain control.
Lewis et al. (2015) used this background and previous studies to provide a reliable base to conduct their research. In particular, they use the Watsons theory on managing pain and focus on the strategies designed to address knowledge deficits regarding pain management and biases toward specific patient populations that include providing information and modifying attitudes. They use this information to arrive at their study purpose. Their study aimed to examine the effect of a professionally directed small group intervention on nurses (a) knowledge of pain management and (b) biases toward specific patient populations concerning pain control. The implied research question may include (a) can professionally-directed small group discussions increase knowledge level regarding pain management and decrease biases towards specific patient populations?
Data Collection and Analysis
Lewis et al. (2015) conducted a quasi-experiment to examine the effect of professionally-directed small group discussions on acute care nurses knowledge level and biases related to pain management. They conducted the study at a 383-bed Magnet redesignated community hospital. The sample consisted 32 registered nurses. The researchers used the Brockopp and Warden Pain Knowledge Questionnaire (PKQ) as the quasi-experiment method. The primary investigators guided professionally directed small group discussions addressing knowledge deficits and negative biases identified from the PKQ. The objectives of the small group interactions were to (a) facilitate open discussion concerning nurses responses to the pre-PKQ and (b) avail information related to evidence-based pain assessment and management strategies for use in the ICU.
LoBiondo-Wood and Haber (2014) define reliability of an instrument as the ability to measure the characteristics of a concept consistently and validity as the extent to which a device measures the aspects of an idea accurately. The reliability of Brockopp and Warden Pain Knowledge Questionnaire was high because it enabled Lewis et al. (2015) to measure the effect of professionally directed small group discussions on the three groups of respondents consistently. Similarly, its validity was high as it estimated this impact accurately and resulted in similar results for each team.
Lewis et al. (2015) used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze the data. Given the number of tests, a Bonferroni correlation was made and alpha level reduced to .003. All the data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 21. These statistical analyses were appropriate for both the levels of measurement and the design of the study. Moreover, the findings of the research reflected prior similar research that demonstrated nurses lack of knowledge concerning the management of pain and biases held toward specific patient populations.
Lewis, C. P., Corley, D. J., Lake, N., Brockopp, D., & Moe, K. (2015). Overcoming barriers to effective pain management: The use of professionally directed small group discussions. Pain Management Nursing, 16(2), 121-127.
LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2014). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice.
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