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Summary of the Articles on Oceanography

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1401 words
Carnegie Mellon University
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Summary of the article Oxygen Levels in Arabian Sea Falling, to Hit Fish Growth.

The rapid decline in oxygen levels being witnessed in the Arabian Sea is attributable to the Indian Ocean warming. With the depletion of oxygen levels, scientists predict an adverse effect on fish breeding cycles. According to scientists, Arabian Seas high vulnerability to changes in the Indian monsoon wind is associated with its oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which has been reported to be the worlds thickest in terms of depth. Increased warming of the ocean and subsequent decline in oxygen concentrations occurs when the top ocean water heats up as a result of global warming thus preventing cooler water brought by undercurrents from the polar region from rising. It is worth noting that the water prevented from rising comes from Antarctica, is oxygenated, and enriched with nutrients. Therefore, if this water does not rise, then ventilation at the upper parts of the ocean is not achieved. Consequently, fish die due to oxygen deprivation (Sequeira, 2017).

Summary of the article Erosion continues to threaten group of Saint John properties.

The Bay of Fundy has recently exhibited erosion that is threatening the homes of individuals living along the Fundy Shoreline. According to one of the homeowners, the property along the shore have moved by 12 inches nearer to the ocean. The residents believe that erosion can be reduced through the installation of a breakwater on the Fundy shoreline. A breakwater is intended to reduce the rate of erosion and will be installed 30 to 40 feet below the high water mark, known as armor stone (CTV Atlantic, 2017).

Because of erosion, many homes risk being destroyed. The tide barrier will cost about $7 million to build. Shoreline erosion has been an issue for coastline house owners for so long, especially those living in Atlantic Canada. Three and a half decades ago, massive rocks were placed on the beach to aid in reducing erosion. However, this approach to alleviating soil erosion has not assisted as it is beginning to erode again (CTV Atlantic, 2017).

Summary of the article Ocean acidification threatens Bering Sea crabs. But can they adapt?

Scientists predict that ocean acidification could wipe red king crab population found in the Bering Sea. It is expected that the crab population will be extinct before the end of the century. However, scientists believe that crabs may undergo evolution and thus might adapt to the acidifying oceans. The question pondering scientists right now is: will the crabs have adequate time to evolve? According to Foy, a researcher who has investigated ocean acidification and its effects on crabs for so long, the oceans around Alaska will rapidly increase in pH over the next half a century. Ocean acidification is primarily as a result of carbon (IV) oxide dissolving in water. Therefore, because of climate change, it is expected that more and more carbon (IV) oxide will be released into the atmosphere leading to increased acidification (Waldholz, 2017).

Based on Foys experiments simulating the future ocean environment in Alaska, all the young red king crabs died as a result of acidification. From these findings, Foy concluded that failure of crabs to acclimate will lead to their mass extinction in about 100 years from now. Death of crabs in acidic water is due to the failure to the difficulty of making and maintaining shells. Also, an acidic environment, crabs have difficulty in keeping their internal pH at an optimum, when the external pH is disturbed. But some promising findings were found in Foys experiment, especially the ability of some experimental crabs to survive the harsh acidic environment. According to Foy, if the ability to withstand acidity is a genetic trait, it may be passed to the offspring leading to the development of a new species of crabs (Waldholz, 2017).

Summary of the article Formation of coastal sea ice in North Pacific drives ocean circulation and climate.

Recent research findings of a study conducted in North Pacific Ocean have revealed that deep ocean circulation is driven by sea ice formation in coastal regions. This circulation affects climate, both regionally and globally. The importance of coastal ice formation in climate change is grounded in the fact that arctic and subarctic regions are warming faster than other world regions (Stephens, 2015).

The importance of ice formation in climate change can be understood by looking at the process of ice formation. When sea ice form, the density of seawater rises as a result of the expulsion of salt into the surrounding water. Because of increased density, oxygen-rich water sinks into the depths. Consequently, there are cold deep water moves to the equator while warm water, found on the surface, flows towards the poles. This aids in the modulation of climate by moving heat from the equator towards the poles (Stephens, 2015).

Summary of the article Red Sea is warming faster than global average.

Recently, the warming of Red Sea has received the attention of scientists. The heightened attention has been informed by recent findings showing that the Red Sea is warming faster than the world average. Based on the thermal limits of aquatic organisms, it is predicted that higher warming rates of the red sea could affect the Seas marine biodiversity in the future. Evidence shows that warmer Red Sea has negatively impacted on the marine organisms ability to adapt and survive. Even though aquatic organisms usually acclimate to increasing ocean temperatures by moving toward the pole, such migration cannot be easily accomplished in the Red Sea because of its semi-enclosed nature (KAUST, 2017).

Summary of the article The South China Sea: A Looming Environmental Disaster?

Focus needs to shift from Chinas military activities in the South China Sea to the high rates of coral loss associated with seawater warming. In addition to rising temperatures of the ocean, excessive fishing activities, as well as coral reef destruction, have been blamed for the coral loss. Moreover, the loss of biodiversity in the South China Sea may be further attributed to Chinas construction of artificial islands. Corals damaged during construction of islands have been reported not to adjust to rising sea levels. To reduce further damage to the coral reef in future, it is suggested that the Chinese government should adhere to the Article 206 of UNCLOS. This article calls for an assessment of the impact of a countrys activities on the marine environment as well as communication of the environmental impact assessment report to UNCLOS as outlined in article 205. It is further suggested that security groups and environmental groups should also cooperate to ensure that biodiversity of the South China Sea is not destroyed (Sequeira, 2017).

Summary of the article Unravelling the mechanisms of SST warming in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is still a challenge.

The global rise in oceans temperature is of concern to environmentalists. The Yellow Sea and East China Sea (YECS) has experienced a steady rise in temperature over the last century. The increase in YECSs temperature is higher than the global mean temperature increase. Increased sea surface temperature (SST) has been associated with rising sea levels, change of ocean currents, and changes in the ocean ecosystem. Even though the steady rise in YECS temperature has been captured by researchers, the mechanisms linked to the increasing oceans warming have not been uncovered due to the multitude factors associated with SST. Additionally, data records related to SST are only restricted to temporal coverage and data quality thus resulting in diverse explanation of SST rise in the YECS (Science China Press, 2017).



CTV Atlantic (2017). Erosion continues to threaten group of Saint John properties. Retrieved from

KAUST (2017). Red Sea is warming faster than global average. Retrieved from

Science China Press (2017). Unravelling the mechanisms of SST warming in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is still a challenge. Retrieved from

Sequeira, N. (2017). Oxygen levels in Arabian Sea falling, to hit fish growth. Retrieved from

Sequeira, N. (2017). Oxygen levels in Arabian Sea falling, to hit fish growth. Retrieved from

Stephens, T. (2015). Formation of coastal sea ice in North Pacific drives ocean circulation and climate. Retrieved from

Waldholz, r. (2017). Ocean acidification threatens Bering Sea crabs. But can they adapt? Retrieved from

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