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Russia and Europe Comparative Essay

6 pages
1597 words
Middlebury College
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The European continent is located in the northern hemisphere and has a territorial extension of 10,530,750 km2. It limits to the north with the Arctic glacial ocean; to the west with the Atlantic Ocean, to the south with the Mediterranean and Black seas; to the southeast with the Caspian Sea and to the east or east with the Ural Mountains, which separate it from Asia Europe is considered a continent rich in natural resources, where there are many factors that contribute to the development of economic activities (especially agriculture). One of these factors is the marked contrast of the relief; thus we have that the northern part is occupied mainly by an enormous plain: the Great European Plain, that for millions of years was covered by the waters of the sea, reason for which great amount of marine sediments was accumulated that at present have caused that their lands are fertile and agricultural activity is practiced. This plain stretches across France, Germany, Denmark, Poland, and Finland, among other countries.

To the north are also several mountain systems, some are so old that erosion has reduced their height, sometimes reaching plateaus, among them are the Kiolen mountains, the Grampians, the Ardennes plateau, the Central Massif, the mountains of the Black Forest and the Bohemian Massif. In the south, on the contrary, the youngest mountain systems of this continent are located, for example: the Pyrenees, which are located on the border of France with Spain; the Alps located in most of Switzerland, east of France, center, and east of Austria and a small area of Italy; in the Alps Monte Blanco is located, that with its 5,000 m. of height is one of the highest peaks in Europe; the Apennine mountains that cross from the north to the south the Italica peninsula; the Dynamic Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. Also on this continent are the Ural Mountains, Caucasus, Baicanes and the mountains or Scandinavian Alps.

The large number of entrants and outposts (peninsulas, bays, and gulfs) that have the coasts of this continent, as well as the islands, archipelagos and inland seas, have determined the history and culture of Europe; the "maritime" nature of the European people has led them to transform the natural landscape of their continent, in addition to exploring and conquering other "worlds". Due to its size, the following peninsulas stand out on the European coastline: to the north, the Scandinavian and the Jutiandia, surrounded by the North Sea and the Baltic Sea; and to the south, the Iberian, the Italica and the Balkan or Balkan, which go into the Mediterranean Sea.

As for the islands, we can name the following: Iceland, Great Britain and Ireland (these three are the largest in Europe); as well as Sardinia, Carcega, Sicily, Crete, and Cyprus, among others. There are also numerous seas that surround Europe, among them we can mention the Baltic, the North, Ireland, Caspian, and Cantabrian; in addition to the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic, Black, Ionian, and Aegean, which are extensions of the Mediterranean Sea. In the Cordilleras or high parts of the continent, rivers are born that maintain their flow throughout the year due to the constant rains and the melting of the mountains; after crossing the European territory they pour their waters into seas and oceans, that is, into the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

Among the most prominent rivers, we find the Volga with 3,690 km of travel, which is why it is considered the longest in Europe; The Danube, which starts in Germany and serves as a border between Romania and Bulgaria, crosses productive agricultural areas of eight countries. The rivers Rhin (born in the Alps), Ruhr and Elbe form the German river network, considered the most important in Europe for allowing communication between the central regions and the coasts of the North Sea. The rivers Seine, Loire, and Radano, located in France, are linked by artificial channels along 5,000 km., Fact that constitutes one of the wonders of engineering of the human being that complemented the work of nature to facilitate the commercial interchange.

According to its latitude, cold and temperate climates correspond to Europe, however, due to the presence of warm marine currents since the continent is surrounded, for the most part, by seas, dominate the latter, that is, the tempered ones. Europe is well defined in the North Sea (Arctic Sea), west (Atlantic Ocean) and south (Mediterranean Sea). However, east of the continent, the division between Asia and Europe is not entirely clear. However, it is believed that the limit is marked by the Ural Mountains (along the Ural River), the Caucasus Mountains, the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. In this way, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan would be on the border of both continents. As it is a very vast continent, it has several types of climate although the majority is temperate climates. This means that, in sum, the climate is not too variable at different times of the year.

Russia is a country in the north and east of Europe, which stretches across Asia to the Pacific Ocean with its future being Moscow. It has an area of 17,075,400 km2, which makes it the largest country in the world, 20,017 km of borders and 37,653 km of coasts. It limits to the north with the Arctic Ocean, in the seas of Barents, Kara, Laptiev and of Eastern Siberia, to the west with the Pacific Ocean, seas of Bering, Okhotsk, and Japan. To the south with North Korea, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea; and to the west with Norway, Finland, the Baltic Sea, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine. Geographically it is divided into two basic units, European Russia, west of the Urals, and Siberia, which extends into Asia east of the Urals.

In the first half of the nineteenth century, Europe was divided according to the social and political characteristics of each region, as follows: In Western Europe, represented by England, France and Belgium, there were profound transformations such as industrialization and the expansion of liberal ideas. The bourgeoisie drove both phenomena. In the countries of Eastern Europe, like Austria, Prussia, and Russia, the industrial growth was smaller, and the bourgeoisie was weak. An agricultural economy persisted, little advanced regarding technology and trade. There, the privileges of the landlords and the monarchy over the peasants were still very strong. The political characteristics of Central Europe resemble Eastern Europe, primarily because of the pressure exerted on this region by Austria, Prussia, and Russia.

In regions such as Spain, the Italica peninsula, and the Balkans, there was a struggle between the liberal forces of change and the more static sectors of the economy and society. These countries expressed patriotic and national feelings, rejecting the intervention of European powers. Russia is the country of extremes, the largest in the world, 9000 km. from East to West, 3000 km. from North to South, eleven slots. A giant country between Europe and Asia, a country that stretches from Eastern Europe to the eastern tip of the Asian continent, two worlds that blend and complement each other magnificently. It limits to the North with the Arctic Ocean, to the East with the Pacific Ocean, to the West with Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Belarus and the Black Sea. Two major regions are traditionally distinguished: European Russia and Asian Russia. European Russia is divided into four sectors: the North and Northwest, the Russian Plain, the Caucasus and the Urals.

The North and Northwest region enjoys a strategic location, next to the borders of Norway and Finland, and on the shores of the Barents and Baltic seas. It constitutes a plateau crossed by mountain ranges and dotted with lakes (Onega, in the Republic of Karelia, and Ladoga). Main cities: Murmansk and St. Petersburg. The northern region of Russia, also known as northern Europe, is composed of six autonomous regions: the Republic of Karelia, the Republic of Komi, the oblast of Arjanguelsk, the oblast of Murmansk, the oblast of Vologda and the autonomous district of Nenetsia and It has a great extension of diverse landscapes such as lakes, mountains, forests, and plains.

The region of Karelia that stretches from Lake Ladoga to the Arctic Circle and from the Finnish border to the White Sea is perfect for discovering Russian nature with its lakes and deep forests. The Russian plain is located in the center of European Russia; it reaches the highest altitude in the Valdaj hills (390 meters). It is crossed by numerous and great rivers (Don, Volga, Dnepr, Western Dvina). In the North, the taiga predominates and in the south the mixed forest. Gorkij, Jaroslavl, and Kalinin are the main cities after Moscow. The Caucasus region extends between the seas of Azov and Black to the West and Caspian to the East and occupies the North slope of the Greater Caucasus. This mountainous mass reaches 5,633 meters on Mount Elbrus, the highest point in Europe, a volcanic massif also called Minghitau, and 5,047 meters on Mount Kazbek. The main cities are Krasnodar and Stavros.

The Eurasian Economic Union (EUEU) and the Economic Belt of the Silk Road could be the basis for a Great Eurasian Association that includes countries of the different economic organizations of the region, assured at the beginning of October the president of Russia, Vladimir Putin, in an interview with Sputnik and the Indian agency IANS. Thanks to its geographic potential, Russia could become a bridge between Europe and Asia, as well as a place where the common interests of Asia, Europe, and the US can be developed.

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