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Research Paper on Pregnancy

7 pages
1876 words
University of California, Santa Barbara
Type of paper: 
Research paper
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.


Every woman desires to have a child at some point in life probably after getting married. Becoming a mother is a joy to every woman in different corner of this world. There is always a sense of victorious when a woman gives birth to a new life and sees it growing to become a whole beautiful creature in the world. However, in the modern world, pregnancy has been receiving a lot of setbacks. There has been the problem of smoking, drinking deaths and unplanned pregnancy leading the rise in the number of mischarges (Liew et al., 320). A woman must be strong both physically and mentally so that they can successfully carry the baby. The research paper will look at the problem that occurs during pregnancy and differentiate between healthy and unhealthy ones leading to the reduction of the incidences such as maternal mortality rate.

Three Trimester pregnancy

Pregnancy can be categorized into stages known as the three trimesters. Each stage in the trimester has got certain fetal development. A full matured pregnancy must take a maximum of 40 weeks. Any child born before completion of 37 weeks is termed as premature infants. Infants born prematurely often have growth and development problems such as digestion and breathing difficulties. The first trimester mostly occurs at the duration of 0 to 13 weeks. The first trimester is the most crucial stage during the development of the baby since it during this period that the body structure and baby organ systems develop. According to the recently conducted research, Chicago women experience most of the miscarriages as well as congenital disabilities. The research reveals that a bigger population of the Chicago women become emotional and tired during this stage due to long working hours as instead of having increased energy levels.

The second trimester often occurs between 14 to 24 weeks. The stage is referred to as the golden period since several of horrible effects that come with early pregnancies disappears. There is always a reduction in the level of nausea. However, a bigger population of the Chicago women experience back pain as a result of excessive use alcohol, domestic violence and long working hours. In a healthy pregnancy, the first fluttering of the baby can be heard between the 16 to 20 weeks.

The third trimester according to World Health Organization and health experts takes place between 27 to 40 weeks. It is reported that during this stage, Chicago women experience serious shortness of breathing problems as well as varicose problems a condition which can lead to hemorrhage. According to the recent research conducted by the WHO, a majority of the Chicago women suffer from diabetes thereby leading to serious complication during the later stages of pregnancy. During the entire pregnancy, Chicago women are advised to seek for regular prenatal care to ensure that both the mother and the baby are healthy hence reducing the maternal mortality rate. However, lack of the employment and low labor cost as contributed to poor parenthood leading to termination of the pregnancy and death (Liew, et al., 315). Women consuming alcohol also have a poor relationship with the family members thereby affecting the physical and mental strength hence leading the poor development of the pregnancy which can affect child development including placenta (Goecke 98).

Problem Encountered During Pregnancy

Nevertheless, during 40 weeks of pregnancy period, there are several challenges encountered by the women. The most common problems include morning sickness, backache changes in the skin colors and vaginal discharge. However, Chicago women often experience severe fatigue due to the long working and standing hours. Long working hours can affect the position of the child within the mothers womb. Additional, majority of them suffer from the swelling as well the varicose vein effects due to the body weight which increases pressure and lack of enough exercise. According to the American Diabetes, weight is often associated with diseases such as diabetes, obesity and high sugar levels of the baby during the pregnancy period. Pregnant mothers having sugar levels that are slightly higher than the normal levels risk raising the sugar levels of the unborn babies. Therefore, this may risk termination and death of the infants.

Moreover, women who become pregnant for the first time often undergo a lot of the emotional problems. Such women always feel nervous, stigmatized and a little embarrassed. Most of the Chicago women develop the fear of not being able to carry the child up to the end of the 40 weeks. Majority of the women develop a self-conscious feeling about their weight leading to low self-esteem. Also during the pregnancy period, women often struggle with the emotional problems such as how to cope with the changes and anxiety of the arrival of the baby. According to the reproduction health report from Chicago health ministry, women from the state develop worries and fear during the last days of the pregnancy.

Women suffering from different health problems always suffer serious emotional challenges once they become pregnant. Most of the Chicago women suffer from various health problems. However, the major health problems include obesity and diabetes. Other problem encountered by women before becoming pregnancy includes painful cramps during menstruation cycle, severe headache and nausea. Other women may suffer from diseases such as gonorrhea, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory infections as well as uterine diseases. Majority of the women from Chicago state having suffered from the diseases, fear to get pregnant due to the imaginary health consequences that may affect them and the baby.

Consequently, pregnancy also comes with health problems especially the first time and women with the history of health problems. However, Iron Deficiency Anemia is the most common health problem during the pregnancy period. Anemia mostly occurs when the red blood cell counts go down below the normal levels (hemoglobin). Iron makes the component of the hemoglobin that assist in the transportation of the oxygen through the blood. The growing child also uses the iron within the blood of the mother for growth and development. Therefore, pregnant mothers are deprived of the crucial element since the fetus consumes the important iron from them leading to the health problem. Additionally, Gestational diabetes is also another big health problem that is associated with the health problems among the kids. Gestational diabetes is the condition that is caused by the high sugar levels. During the pregnancy, the body of the women requires a lot of sugar to support the growth of the child and the mother. However, when produced in excess, the parent risk suffering from gestational diabetes. Research indicates that 9% of the Chicago women in the United States risk suffering from the health problems. Other health problems that are often encountered by Chicago women during pregnancy periods include Anxiety and depression, high blood pressure, miscarriages, preeclampsia and placenta abruption, swelling of legs and fingers.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Health problem during pregnancy is not only caused by diseases but also the moral behaviors of an individual. Too much consumption of alcohol may pose severe threats to the parents and the mothers and the unborn child (Goecke 103). Pregnant women are advised not to consume alcohol during the entire duration. Alcohol harms the development of the kid since it can pass through the blood of the mother and enters into the fluid system of the baby. A disorder known as fetal alcohol spectrum (FASD) is used to describe health problems caused by alcohol to the child. A pregnant mother who consumes a lot of alcohol may give birth to a child who may suffer both mental and physical problems during their entire life. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most dangerous type of FASD. Majority of pregnant women have been asking on the amount of alcohol that is considered too much and can endanger the life of the unborn child. However, recent research conducted by the health experts reveals that there is no known amount of alcohol consumed by a pregnant woman that could be termed as a safe amount. The study reveals that any amount of alcohol can damage the fetus thus increasing the levels of miscarriage among women. The study concludes that the best remedy of protect the unborn child from FAS is through complete avoidance of alcohol by woman.

The diagnosis of FASDs can be made after evaluating the symptoms such as (poor growth, facial features as well as brain development) mainly if it is known that the mother used to take alcohol during the pregnancy period. There is always challenge when treating children having milder problems compared to those who are known to suffer from the disorder. A child who is suspected to be suffering from FASD should be taken to genetic specialist or developmental pediatrician to identify and ascertain the problems thereby confirming the diagnosis. There is no known treatment for FASDs, but a lot of thing can be done to help correct the situation if the diagnosis is done in good time. Children suffering from such disorders may benefit from physical, occupational and speech therapy. Counseling and class that teach such children on social skills can play a significant role helping them to recover.

Food and Alcohol to Avoid

During pregnancy women are advised to avoid raw meat such as the uncooked poultry, meat and sea food because they are likely to be contaminated with coliforrm bacteria and salmonella. Additionally, raw eggs, soft cheeses, unpasteurized Milk and pate should be avoided by a pregnant woman. Expectant mothers are not allowed to take any form of alcohol so that the help of the baby cannot be compromised. Excessive consumption of alcohol by the pregnant mother can lead to effects such as growth problems. A child who is exposed to content of alcohol before there are born risks being smaller compared to others kids of the same age. The child may also suffer from the distinctive facial feature. The children may also have difficulties in learning as well as behavioral problems. Various symptoms are associated with the pregnancy infection as a result of alcohol consumption by pregnant mothers. Excessive discharge of the blood from the birth canal before may indicate that the fetus has been terminated due to the infection by alcohol component from them the blood of the mother, fatigue, and breathe shortness.

Additionally, a woman who has got infected pregnancy due to the effects of alcohol show symptom of having the urge to urinate more often. The urine has always a mixture of blood. According to World health records, alcohol is one of the leading causes of premature termination of pregnancy in the world. In Chicago, a bigger population of women experience premature termination of pregnancy due to a high number of women using alcohol before and during such period. Finally, another symptom of an infected pregnancy is the feeling of pain in the lower abdomen by the pregnant mother. Abdominal pain is a signal that the fetus might have already been terminated and the uterus wall might be collapsing causing pain in the women lower abdomen.

The graph of healthy baby


Graph of unhealthy baby



There is a need to take care of the pregnancy and parenthood with a lot of care to ensure that the health of an unborn child and the mother is adequately taken care off. Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy should be prohibited and necessary penalties imposed t...

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