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Research Paper Example: Migration and Development

7 pages
1808 words
Sewanee University of the South
Type of paper: 
Research paper
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Over the years, migration has been linked to the social, economic, and environmental aspects that make up the three major pillars of sustainable development. Looking at the definition of immigration, it is the process in which individuals move into destination countries of which they are not natives, or they do not possess the rights as citizens. Globally, most states foster to improve the systems of migration with the aim of promoting sustainable development, not only to the migrants but also the society as a whole. Multinational organizations such as the International Organization for Migration (IOM), whose vision is to offer a better understanding of the links between international migration and development to harness the potential for growth. The resultant event of movement benefits the migrants as well as the local communities. Consequently, it works towards sustainable development as well as reduction of poverty (Chatty, 2002). As mentioned before, the beneficiaries of events as a result of migration vary from returning and potential migrants, their families, communities in the diaspora, national governments, and the private sector. Personally, I believe that movement is an essential aspect of the society we live in, not only with regards to development but also in promoting peace and international cohesion. It is worth noting that the systems and strategies for migration are different in each country. Having this knowledge will help observe all the respective legal provisions, prior migrating into a new country. This essay aims at exploring the different aspects of migration and consequently evaluating its association with national and international sustainable development.

An important aspect to look at is that of open borders. In simple terms, free boundaries allow individuals to move freely to and from different countries, usually with limited restrictions. Over the decades, there have emerged arguments concerning how the presence of open borders can significantly reduce poverty at even global levels. The migration debate has consistently been mired in myths and misconceptions primarily by conservatives. Some suggest that having open borders will most definitely disrupt a nations security as well as the social structure. However, I differ with these suggestions, just because I believe free borders will immensely open new opportunities both for the local community and the immigrants. For individuals with business ventures, open borders will help them get their products and services to new markets in the backward countries. According to Kukathas (2005), most Americans are misled with allegations that immigrants lead to distortion of social services as well as drowning down the wages. Having open borders will significantly improve access to the new markets, i.e., with very minimal restrictions. Likewise, I believe that having public limits will reduce the burden of low-income earners whereby they have to pay immigration duties. In most scenarios, immigrants are low-income earners who seek new ventures that will help them improve their lives, both economically and socially. Promotion of open borders between countries will profoundly assist in eradicating poverty levels, mainly through the provision of a wide array of opportunities.

Similarly, I support the idea of open borders, given the fact that different skilled persons will engage, thus improved society. In recent years, some countries have been putting strict restrictions on their borders. It limits potential migrants who might be of significant input the countrys economy. For instance, some of the immigrants might be professionals in different economic sectors such as engineering, farming, accounting, human resource, public health, just to mention a few. Such professionals might help improve the economy of the host nation. Similarly, I believe that the international border enforcement status quo is destructive, not only morally, but also economically. The strict restrictions at the borders restrict the movement of individuals who dont have any ill intentions. Legally, most people are barred from moving across borders. Research shows that most of these people are usually fleeing poverty or persecution, in the desire of better job opportunities, or just want to visit the cities. Barring these people from pursuing the opportunities and life that they desire. These people usually have enough merits, and thus can be helpful members of the society. In the United States, for instance, millions of people that are restricted at the borders are stripped from realizing their full ambitions and potentials. Looking at this situation as an economic perspective, it is a drain, not only to the industrial and innovative capacity of humans but also the social aspect that acknowledges the dignity and moral worth of each human being. All governments should open their borders such that all migrants have an opportunity to pursue their dreams and ambitions. However, security and public health measures should be enhanced at every border point. It will go in handy in protecting the lives of the citizens as well as that of the migrants.

Also, I support the idea of opening all borders as it will enhance cultural integration all around the world. People from various countries have their own unique cultures and traditions that can be shared with other people. Individuals will learn from each other and thus improve the social structure. By barring people at the borders, there will be minimal cultural integration and consequently, reduce international cohesion. It is evident that a peaceful and integrated community thrives, not only socially, but also economically. In fact, quite some research shows that there is no other better way of making the world wealthier than through migration. It is the most effective and efficient way of poverty eradication across borders. With that in mind, I am in full support of the idea of opening all borders that people can move freely into other countries.

According to economists, to reduce poverty levels, appropriate measures and strategies should be adopted. One of the most effective approaches is through immigration. However, it has been challenging to identify specific policy programs which most governments can pursue to end global poverty. In this case, having more liberal laws regarding migration will allow for greater freedom of movements across international borders. More specifically, there is a place premium. It means that the same folk, without any change in skills or the number of hours worked, can gather a considerably higher amount of income in some countries than in others. It will with no doubt boost the economic development in migrant-sending nations. In the same sense, when developing countries experience a contraction in their economies, it may then make the financial reason for them to lose some of their population as economic opportunities within those regions have consistently declined. Likewise, remittances sent by migrants to their friends, family, and the local communities, entirely constitute a much more substantial portion of the global financial flows than any other foreign aid. Whenever there is freedom of movement, there is the rapid convergence between the salaries earned by people in similar occupations. Opening all borders will play a significant role in this, both directly and via remittances and by creating a world that is more interconnected (Oberman, 2013).

Opening all borders will also work towards eradicating poverty in migrant-sending states. Typically, the most often cited support for migration-based development is that of remittances. International migrants send payments back home, thus playing a vital role in the economic accounts of the developing countries. Globally, it is estimated that annual remittances sum up to $ 100 billion and that 55% of this amount is sent to developing countries. It, therefore, means that migration meaningfully helps to reduce the poverty levels in developing countries. Opening borders will increase the rates of movement, and thus promote poverty reduction. Additionally, income in the form of remittances is rarely used for productive purposes. Instead, they go in relatively small amounts to poor communities and are mostly used to support direct consumption as well as healthcare, housing, and education. Also, it is worth noting that migration will result in a decrease in population in the host country. It will, therefore, give room to relatively equal opportunities to the remaining group. Individuals in migrant-sending nations will tend to have a wide array of opportunities that will promote their social and economic development. I believe that having all the border points opened will evocatively improve both the lives of the immigrants and also the citizens of the initial states. Similarly, free movement across borders will promote more efficient ways of allocation of human capital. People will consistently have opportunities to develop themselves and their homes as well. Even though much of the remittances funds are not spent on investments, at least it reaches the poor communities in the developing countries. It is therefore clear that improved or liberal migration systems will significantly help in reducing the levels of poverty in the migrant-sending countries. As mentioned earlier, most of these immigrants are usually fleeing from unfortunate situations, and seek better opportunities to do business or learn. Some of these people advance their skills and knowledge then go back to their countries. They then apply the newly acquired knowledge and expertise to improve the economic and social environments there.

As mentioned earlier, the migrant economic remittances are a vital and consistently growing source of foreign funds in the migrant-sending countries. It is estimated that the annual payments from the United States of America sum up to $ 100 billion. It is quite a considerable amount of money, especially in the poor migrant-sending countries. In most instances, these funds are used for personal gains and development, and not for investments and economic growth for these countries. A good example is the remittance funds sent to Arab migrant-sending states. These funds are used up by the citizens for their personal development as well as social development. Very little is put into investment projects that would ensure an even better economic environment for future generations. The respective governments, therefore, come in with appropriate strategies and policies that provide there is enhanced the contribution of remittances towards economic development in migrant-sending countries. These payments can have profound impacts on economies and welfare in migrant-source households and regions; influencing not only financial health there but also future incentives to migrate. Over the years, policies have been developed to ensure there is enhanced positive impacts of remittances in migrant-sending countries.

First, there is a policy of clear understanding of the role that the remittances play in the migrant sources and regions. Based on new research findings, the impact of migration and remittances on migrant-source households and areas are more complicated now than previously thought. When the loss of human resource to movement causes shortages in labor, it can have negative impacts on production and thus on non-migration incomes, in non-migrant source areas. This strategy aims at generating income multipliers in the migrant-sending economies, precisely by providing the households with investment capital and by increasing the demand for goods and services. In other words, this policy will improve the efficiency in which the migrant-sending countries utilize these funds. Because of the economic multipliers, each remitted...

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