The combined efforts of senior managers and line managers are intrinsic towards the success of a firm (Maxwell, G. and Watson, C. 2008, 85). Both share a common goal of achieving the organizations objectives by ensuring workforce efficiency. Line managers help out with the tactical aspects of HR while the senior managers are left to concentrate on strategic issues. These managers must receive initial training from the top HR on the matter of people management. Organizations should not assume that all line managers are good at working directly with employees on a daily basis.
Every employer wishes to have a sufficiently motivated workforce geared towards achieving the company objectives. There is high competition in all factors of production, and the labor market is indeed not left behind. Organizations are experiencing challenges in the retention of their competitive employees. The situation is occurring in all companies regardless of technological advancements or size. The high turnover rates are a problem for companies since they are forced to search for recruits and train them, which is an expensive undertaking. The leading cause of the reduced retention rates boils down to the strategic issue of employee motivation.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that employees receive motivation from many factors in the company except financial gain (Sunderji, 2017). Progressive managers must not assume that money is the solution to all demoralized workers. Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic depending on where it originates. External motivators come from the company management in the form of punishments or rewards (Sunderji, 2017). Workers will be motivated to work and earn rewards or to avoid penalties. Managers must fully enforce whichever approach they take. Intrinsic motivators originate from the employees and involve factors like job satisfaction. Factors that come from within the worker are the most effective since it is a voluntary force of will. External factors might give rise to rebellious tendencies, especially the acts of punishment.
Organizations will experience significant impacts when they lose any part of their workforce. The skilled labor and top management are a scarce commodity, and hence they are valuable assets to the company. Managers who seek to gain a competitive advantage are implementing measures to keep the employee motivated to avoid the distraction and cost of resignations (Ramlall, S. 2004, 52).
There are several schools of thought with diverse approaches to the reasons that keep people motivated at the workplace (Sunderji, 2017). Organizations use numerous ways to encourage employees, but sadly, some are unfounded on sound theories. Businesses use a lot of resources to train the workforce hence it is imperative to study some of these tried and tested approaches to determine how to motivate workers despite a shortage of money. Motivation requires a primary objective, ability, and a desire to work. The theories will guide the managers into implementing important strategies that will leave employees motivated.
Abraham Maslows Hierarchy Theory
Maslow thought that human capital was severely underrated when he came up with this approach. He suggests that human beings are motivated by self-actualization, which seats at the peak of the pyramid. The theory stipulates that employees are driven by five main factors which fall hierarchically:
Self-actualization- is the ultimate measure of employee motivation since it involves utilization of their talents and abilities. People are motivated by the need to reach the highest pinnacle of their profession. Managers can achieve this stage by providing new challenges to employees as well as encouraging creativity.
Esteem- self-confidence and the need to feel respected by peers. People with a high esteem of themselves will command respect from their colleagues, which is also a factor towards the feelings of appreciation. Delegation of duties will make people feel confident in their abilities and encourage participation. Managers should make a point of congratulating productive workers regularly to boost their morale.
Affiliation- this step refers to the emotional factor of feeling wanted and loved. Maslow suggests that people need to be in associations where their opinion and effort is valued. Entrepreneurs should encourage the socialization of workers to build up their team spirit. Organizing activities like tugs of war is an excellent way of bonding.
Security- this step reflects on the general environment and its conduciveness for the employee. A worker who feels insecure is unlikely to stay motivated. Insecurity could also refer to a lack of financial uncertainty in the future (Ramlall, S. 2004, 54). Employees have a psychological response to managerial behavior that makes them feel insecure such as ignorance of their welfare. Managers should secure the external environment to eliminate any risks to the workers life.
Physiological - these include the necessities necessary for survival in the job environment such as shelter, clothing, sleep, water, and food. Availability of drinking water and vending machines are examples of ideas to keep the employees motivated.
Chip Conley is the owner of Joie de Vivre chain of boutique hotels, as well as working for Airbnb. He used Maslow's hierarchy to determine the level of satisfaction of hotel visitors, starting with the essential requirement of a room to sleep. Moving up the pyramid, they increased the number of amenities that attract high-end business clients (Hofman, 2007).
McClellands Need Theory
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