What are the economic, environmental, and cultural consequences of viewing Nunavut of the Territorial North as Canadas last frontier? Are the frontier and homeland views of this region compatible with one another?
Nunavut of the Territorial North is the newest and largest territory of Canada. Nunavut is characterized by treeless and tundra zones and remains to be a very remote area with under-explored geology. However, naming Nunavut as Canadas last frontier comes with various economic, cultural, and environmental consequences to the country.
Economically, Nunavut is rich with natural resources and other activities that can improve Canadas economy. The move by Canada to name Nunavut as the last frontier helps in minimizing exploration of valuable resources for future use. The territory is rich with oil and gas which are crucial basing in mind that the modern world is characterized by increasing oil prices, climate change, and engineering advances. Other opportunities include fishing, hunting, art crafts, and mining which makes the region vital (Kulander & Lomako, 2010).
Culturally, Nunavut is predominately occupied by the Inuit population that is well known for aboriginal art and culture. Canada can earn millions of dollars from arts and crafts that are common in Nunavut region. Additionally, Nunavut produces valuable stone carvings from Cape Dorset hence becoming a source of income in the economy. Moreover, Nunavut contains a scenic community of Pangnirtung which can be a good tourist site for tourists. Canada may earn foreign income from tourists interested in watching weavers or visiting ancient mines like Lupine Mine and Polaris Mine (Campbell & Cameron, 2016).
Nevertheless, Nunavut has environmental consequences to Canada. Recently, climate change has resulted in decreasing ice in many Northern territories including Nunavut. This, however, can be vital in opening Northern passage that will facilitate shipping in Canada (Kulander & Lomako, 2010). However, unfavorable environmental conditions in the region may cause food insecurity, the rise of diseases, and impact on heritage thus affecting Canada at large.
The frontier and homeland views of Nunavut are however not compatible. The Nunavut locals who reside and work in Nunavut view the region as homeland while others who desire to exploit natural resources see it as a frontier. They are not compatible based on simplistic and myopic notions of the region. The view as a homeland is due to Nunavuts traditional lifestyle, circumpolar linkages and sustainable use of resources. Frontier views, on the other hand, is due to staples exploitation, boom and bust, and southern markets (Campbell & Cameron, 2016).
To what extent can/should Atlantic Canada depend on megaprojects to improve the regions economic fortunes? What other avenues offer potential as far as future economic growth is concerned?
Megaprojects is a huge opportunity for Atlanta as they will enhance the economic fortunes of the region. Megaprojects will attract a lot of business to Atlantic region if the region shows that it can keep up with the rigorous demand of businesses. Most of the multinational corporations that have invested in this mega project have a huge expectation. The region that has many mega project activities in Atlantic region is Newfound and Labrador. Take, for instance, the Hebron oil project of off Newfoundland that is expected to start production in December 2017. When fully operational, the oil project is estimated to produce 150,000 (Fusco, 2007). The project that has taken more than eight years had an estimated cost of $5 billion. The province will receive 4.9 equity state and other revenues during the life of the project. Also, for the next 20 years, the oil project is anticipated to account for about 60 percent of Newfound and Labrador oil production and this a huge business opportunity to most business in the region and fuel-related cost will reduce. These mega-projects will open up the region to the rest of the world as a result of increased capital investment and support condition where business can excel (Bornstein, 2010).
The mega infrastructure plays an essential role in the creation of employment. Take for example the Vales Nickel processing facility at Long Harbor. More than 1000 people are employed to run various operations. Nalcor Energys Bull Arm site, the largest industrial fabrication facility has employed more than 500 people. This is a few examples that show how these mega structures play an integral role in the creation of employment, and a region with a low rate of employment is a clear indication of a successful region. Furthermore, these mega projects have facilitated the improvement of infrastructures such as road and pipelines, as megaproject requires this infrastructure to ease the movement of raw materials and workers. Hence, the region needs these projects since they have huge long-term benefits. The region is blessed with a wealth of natural resources, and this is an ideal environment for mega projects (Fusco, 2007).
The region can drive economic growth if it implements targeted evidence-based actions under the following priority areas. First, there is innovation. The region should focus on innovation such as commercialization of research and creation of new breakthrough ideas in areas such as renewable energy, aquaculture, and agriculture. Immigration should also be given a priority (Bornstein, 2010). Enhancing the region's capability to develop and retain skilled personnel through addressing persistent and emerging labor need will help in its growth. Trade and investment are also essential in the development of the region. For example, expanding business activities between Atlantic Canada and the global market can attract more investors and this move also boost the tourism industry. Lastly, the growth of the economy should revolve around innovation in the transition to a low-carbon economy and clean jobs (Bornstein, 2010).Compare and contrast Western Canadas economy with that of British Columbia. To what extent is Western Canadas reliance on agriculture similar to the role of the forest industry in BC?
Western Canada comprises of four provinces, Alberta British Columbia, and Saskatchewan. However, British Columbia is economical, politically and culturally different from other parts. Economically, Colombia is a resource dominated economy that is anchored on the forestry industry and mining sector that has fluctuated in the recent years. Employment in the resource sector has fallen and as more job opportunities have been created by construction and retailer sectors (Cavalic, 2017). British Colombia has the highest percentage of service industry jobs as compared to western Canada. Similar to western Canada, the sectors that employ most people include finance, insurance, and corporate management. Economic growth of Western Canada is anchored by the natural resources sector. In 2015, resource-based goods accounted for about 62 percent of the total exported product. The natural resource sector has assisted the economy as it supports the creation of industry clusters in agricultural, forestry and mine and gas industry.
The Western Canada reliance on agriculture is same as British Colombia reliance on forestry (Cavalic, 2017). The forestry industry for the year has been the cornerstone of economic activity and remains the British Colombias economy. The forest remains essential to even though the economy has matured and diversified over the past years. In 2016, the forest sector accounted for 37 percent of the total export and remain the major employer in various parts of British Colombia. Furthermore, the sector contributed to $853 million to the provincial government directly. There are over 700 businesses in British Colombia that are directly supported by Forestry related activities and more than 60,000 people employed (Hertzberg, 2016). The agricultural sector continues to perform well in western Canada even though it has not matured since it is still changing new technologies and new market become available. For example, in 2016, Western Canada exported approximately $1.6 million worth of beef products. The sector has employed more than 230, 000 people directly across the region (Hertzberg, 2016). In 2013, the agriculture export accounted 76 percent of the total export, and they were valued at $18.5 billion (Crawford & Beveridge, 2013). Basing from the statistics above, it is evident that both sectors play an essential role in both regions as they contribute to the growth of overall economy
Speculate as to British Columbias future as a region of Canada. In 25 years, will it be classed as a core region or as a periphery region? What factors will impact on the regions future development?
The regional economy of British Economy has been a dynamic and changing landscape for many years. The region has made the difficult transition, from an overwhelming resource rent economy to a modern, diversified economy that comprises of resources and technological developments. The emergence of Pacific century twenty year ago present a huge test regarding a trade to British Colombia provided that the region depends on trade with the united states (McGillivray, 2011). In 2016, B.C exported 76 percent of its product to the U. S while only 10 percent was exported to other Asian countries. The future is bright as long as B.C embraces the Asian Pacific more energetically. The region also requires transforming quickly to rent creation than rent-seeking. For example, the region needs to focus on creating high-valued wood products to be able to outdo foreign companies in international marketThe factors that can impact future growth are lies in with the people of B.C. One of the greatest opportunities that B.C is to incorporate the recent immigrants, marginalized society and other groups of people that experience barriers to participate in B.C economy and society fully. The region should focus on equipping this groups of people with knowledge and expertise and expand their access to a job. Also, British Colombia requires to look and the current policies to ensure that they favor future growth. There is a need of offsetting the increasing concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a few individuals. Empowering workers through strengthening their voice is an essential factor that will impact the region growth. The government should also invest in technology and innovation. Both public and private sectors require looking for ways of building a strong partnership to create a right environment to cultivate advanced new firms. If all this are implemented together with other factors, B.C will be a hub of economic growth characterized by increased innovation, industries and increased demand of investing in the region.
Bornstein, L. (2010). Mega-projects, city-building and community benefits. City, Culture, and Society, 1(4), 199-206.
Campbell, A., & Cameron, K. (2016). Constitutional Development and Natural Resources in the North. In Governing the North American Arctic (pp. 180-199). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Cavalic, A. (2017). Sharing Economy in Western Balkans: Potential for Rural Development. doi:10.14706/icesos171
Crawford, E., & Beveridge, R. (2013). Strengthening BCs Agriculture Sector in the Face of Climate Change.
Fusco, L. (2007). Offshore oil: An overview of development in Newfoundland and Labrador. Occasional Paper, 2.
Hertzberg E. (2016). British Columbia Is Canada's Newest Economic Star Performer. Bloomberg.
Kulander, C., & Lomako, S. (2010). The Arctic: Past the Last Frontier. The Northern Mariner/Le marin du Nord, 20(1), 71.
McGillivray, B. (2011). Geography of British Columbia: people and landscapes in transition. Vancouver: UBC Press.
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