Source: CIA World Factbook, 2017
The current population of Russia shows that females are more than males in the country and they have a longer life span (Central Intelligence Agency, 2017). There are low birth rates in the country with about an average of 9 people living per square kilometer. Most people live in urban centers. The median age of both males and females in the country is about 40 years. Mention reasons for low birth rate. Some of the reasons associated with low birth rates include the preference of women having only one child (Kumo, 2010). Most women are unwilling to give birth to more than one child despite the fact that they are doing well economically. Families with the highest number of children are less and have about three kids. In addition, the high rate of abortions by women in both rural and urban centers is high affecting the possibility of giving birth to children. Most women choose abortion as the first option when contraceptives fail or when one has gotten an unplanned pregnancy (Eberstadt, 2010). Further, the high rate of deaths in the country affects the number of births reported per year. Women outlive men by more than five years. Russia has low rates of immigration meaning that only a few people relocate to the nation as citizens or visitors.
Some of the problems associated with low birth rates include inability to grow and develop the country, as there are no younger generations to take over industries in the nation. The economy also performs poorly due to low fertility rates, as there are no energetic people to move the country towards developments. Various efforts and incentives to increase the birth rate include giving cash to women who are ready and willing to carry a pregnancy to term and the governments promise to help take care of children.
A country trying to decrease the birth rate: China
Figure 2: China population demographics
Source: CIA World Factbook, 2017
According to the Central Intelligence Agency, (2017) China has more than one trillion people living in the country making it among the most populated nations in the world. Most people fall between the age of 26 and 55 years and are within their working and employment stage. Hence, the dependency rate is low as most people can support their lives with ease. The median age for all persons is about 38 years but the country has a growth rate of about 0.41% (Blencowe et al., 2012). It means that women are able and willing to give birth to more than two children even though the government has stepped in to help regulate population increase.
Some of the reasons for high birth rates include the industrialization in the nation, the ability of women to forgo careers and bring forth children, and improved medical facilities in the country (Flaherty et al., 2012). The presence of many industries in the country means that most people have formal income and can therefore support their lives through earning a decent income. Women choose to build their homes settle down after marriage and have enough time and attention to bring up children. The improved medical facilities in the country ensures that people recover within a short time after ailing, and that women who give birth are in a position to access quality care.
Problems associated with increased birth rates are the negative effects on natural resources and the economy (Blencowe et al., 2012). The natural resources are unable to support high populations as people occupy most land. It leads to depletion of natural resources and a negative effect on the growth of the economy. However, the government stepped in and sensitized the citizens on the need to reduce the birth rate (Flaherty et al., 2012). Each couple is allowed to have one child as per the governmental rules.
A country with an aging population: Germany
Figure 3: Population demographics in Germany
Source: CIA World Factbook, 2017
Records from Central Intelligence Agency, (2017) suggest that Germany has more elderly people than younger people amongst its citizens. Some of the reasons that justify the high number of elderly people is the advanced medical facilities in the country that makes people live for longer without dying early. In addition, the low mortality rates contribute to the high number of elderly people in the nation (Bloom et al., 2011). Another reason for the elderly population in Germany is low immigration rates due to the low economic performance. Elderly people are unable to effectively engage in physical work that would help in generating incomes for their families (Lee & Mason, 2011).
Problems associated with elderly populations include low developments in the economy, as aged people are unable to work actively in building the nation (Lee & Mason, 2011). In addition, the dependency rate is high, as the few younger people have to work twice as hard so that they can support the elderly populations. Therefore, the marginal propensity to save reduces affecting the number of investments in the country from the locals. A high rate of elderly people also means that the life expectancy rate is high (Bloom et al., 2011). As a result of having elderly populations, there are less younger people in the nation as aged people have surpassed the biological capability of giving birth to children.
Various efforts and incentives to protect aged people include offering hospice services and care centers as the country ensures that they have quality life in their sunset years (Lee & Mason, 2011). There is also the idea of giving cash to elderly people per month who choose to live at their homes instead of staying at the care centers.
Blencowe, H., Cousens, S., Oestergaard, M. Z., Chou, D., Moller, A. B., Narwal, R., ... & Lawn, J. E. (2012). National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications. The Lancet, 379(9832), 2162-2172.
Bloom, D. E., Boersch-Supan, A., McGee, P., & Seike, A. (2011). Population aging: facts, challenges, and responses. Benefits and compensation International, 41(1), 22.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2017). The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html
Eberstadt, N. (2010). Russia's peacetime demographic crisis: Dimensions, causes, implications. National Bureau of Asian Research.Flaherty, J. H., Liu, M. L., Ding, L., Dong, B., Ding, Q., Li, X., & Xiao, S. (2007). China: the aging giant. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(8), 1295-1300.
Kumo, K. (2010). Explaining fertility trends in Russia. VOX. Published June, 2.
Lee, R. D., & Mason, A. (Eds.). (2011). Population aging and the generational economy: A global perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing.
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