Cognitive psychology relies on internal based processes that enable us to make out the environment and initiate responses to variations in the background. The domestic-based activities include; reasoning, paying attention and learning new things. Neuropsychology and Cognitive neuropsychology are the concepts that enable us to be conversant with the subject of cognitive psychology. Some of the many methods of brain examination can be of more deep scope or just observational. However, the intrusive mechanisms of brain study fall under scrutiny. The critics argue that these tools are more suitable for examining animals as compared to human beings.
The concept of knowledge about something is firmly based on imaginable aspects in the study of psychology. The measure of awareness of individual on various things can be used `in telling the person's discerning level. The primary ability of a person to evaluate internal thoughts gains definition as cognitive function. Mental activity, able bodies like human beings and machines as well as individual psychological processes like judgment all rely on the cognitive function. Thomas Aquinas did extensive research and was able to classify behavior into two major categories namely; cognitive and emotional. The cognitive part of it involves how people are conscious of events occurring in the present world they live in while feelings usually propel the sentimental category. It facilitates tasks like solving problems, concentration, figuring out of different things, memory, identifying with something or execution of different things. As individual progress in life, the cognitive aspect faces constant hinderance as a result of the advancing age and disease prevalence. These pose a problem in conscious thinking, and they cause a loss of memory to individuals. At first, the emotion did not acquire the consideration in one way or the other as part of individual cognitive functions.
People who tend to have reflex actions often portray. The part at the front of the brain belonging to the people who act impulsively is taken to be not operating efficiently. Thus, gives the conclusion that people who serve on impulse face difficulty in making decisions during the cognitive stage. It, therefore, makes such people be to rush into making decisions without thoroughly weighing all the choices they have at hand. Some people who have a strong desire to attract interest tend to select alternatives which are more perilous. Morrison et al. 2004 suggest that checking brain activity by use of a scan can exhibit this. It provides a base for significant and essential assistance in the field of cognitive research and makes out of behavior in general. These two issues fall under the category of unrestricted behavioral conduct in human beings CITATION Mor04 \l 1033 (Morrison, 2004)Social Cognitive theory
New experiences are supposed to be examined by a learner by basing on the past experiences and using the same parameters, according to the Social Cognitive Theory. It, therefore, implies that learning involves a thorough examining of both past and present experiences. The theory further points out that evaluation of mental processes can be used to explain the various learning processes. It identifies efficient cognitive function can be very useful in learning and retaining the information for more extended periods of time. The low cognitive function can, however, bring constraints in the learning process in the course of an individuals life (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2016).
Source: Social Cognitive theory design (Ngai et al., 2015).
A good example is seen in the endorsement of products or brands by people of influence such as celebrities. If aspects of the target audience, gender, ethnicity, and age acquire and gain a proper consideration in the entire process, then this helps in catapulting the product because the audience who want to identify themselves with the celebrities will imitate their favorite person who uses the product or brand. Some media activities apart from advertising matter to how the society makes its choices. Mass media has proved to be a great influencer of our morals, products we use and many other aspects. The press has capabilities to manipulate the audience.
Cognitive Behavioral Theory
Devised by Aaron Beck, this theory explains and demonstrates the role of knowledge in projecting the changes of behavior in an individual. It suggests that people form their understanding of various issues and it forms the basis of the character they show outwardly. Exterior factors like environment conditions and parental support can affect ideas, beliefs, and cognizance of an individual. The cognitive functions can change his behavior in the behavior and person relationship. The behavior affects his reasoning capacity. External factors also influence how a person exposes his mannerisms, as part of how the environment changes behavior. The practice can have equal retaliation in modifying someone's background.
Cognitive development theory
This theory evaluates rearrangement of mental processes. Children first understand the world around them, and as they develop, they make discoveries through experiencing discrepancies in what they know and what the environment presents them. There are three main components in Piaget theory which include schemas, the adaptation processes in stage transitions and the stages of cognitive development.
Primary concepts in cognitive psychology
Cognition and Cognition approaches are the two fundamental concepts learned in cognitive psychology.
Under this concept, cognitive psychology is understood to be the part of psychology that deals with various activities in the human body especially the mental part of them. These functions involve speech, language, and memory. Also, reasoning, perception, and problem-solving. It mainly focuses the manner in people do their things and learning from them is very capable of changing your mannerisms. People can manage and benefit more from information because of being aware of how to obtain the information quickly, efficiently and accurately. Modern, highly educated people typically make a decision that revolves around the basis of accurate information, which is practical and technology savvy when required. It is since their thinking is cultivated in a modern way which is fast (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2016).
Examples of the processes concerning information;
Take the case of a person newly attached to work at an organization, but he had a deficiency in professionalism. However, in that same company, there is professional staff that is too sluggish at work and acquire payment for the same. This new employee after serving in the organization for long will perceive that he does not have to work so hard since it will not reflect on his salary in any way.
Remembering something read is more relaxed than something heard of in the past. It is because reading engages the brain more in internalizing that just listening. Listening put the entire load on our ears and expects the brain to store. Listening sometimes does not guarantee to understand. Information is more useful to the receivers if it gains communication in a language that the brain is programmed to interpret. The mind can decode meaning and analyze the critical details.
Sound reasoning ability demands to get information from all sides in contention and evaluating it. The contentious issue acquires customary exposure by studying the attitude and behavior of someone. The keen evaluation of these aspects integrated with the information at hand can be used to come up with a solution. The consistency of tone can efficiently gain doing by taking an individual to a location with an abundance of materials which have the knowledge that a person can use repeatedly.
It is a branch of cognitive psychology that can be used to understand human psychology by building on the roles of knowledge, memory, perception and reasoning processes.
Examples concerning information;
From the people who operate on the ideology that failure is postponed success make a good case. These people try as much as they can, more consistently. They are less likely to cause errors because of the experience and information obtained from striving thus making them rigid and patient.
In conclusion, issues concerning the involvement of cognition theory relate to media in different ways. Media may render different effects to the different perceptions; however, the theories provide significant relations that interact all together. Within the context of the developing technology, cognition in media is significantly rendering various interactions since cognition relies on the individual internal processes.
Morrison, R.G., Krawczyk, D.C., Holyoak, K.J., Hummel, J.E., Chow, T.W., 2004. A
Neuro-computational model of analogical reasoning and its breakdown in front temporal lobar degeneration. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 16(2), pp.260-271
Ngai, E. W., Tao, S. S., & Moon, K. K. (2015). Social media research: Theories, constructs, and conceptual frameworks. International Journal of Information Management, 35(1), 33-44.
Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2016). Cognitive psychology. Nelson Education.
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