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Medicine Report Example: Fibrocystic Breasts

3 pages
608 words
George Washington University
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Fibrocytes refer to fat, fibrous tissues which ligaments and enable scar tissues to arise in breasts. The physical assessment of fibrosis is done through an evaluation of fibrocystic changes. It is usually achieved when there exist swelling and or tenderness, breasts lumps and mild pain in breasts. Whenever the pain gets worse especially before the onset of the menstrual cycle, or some changes occurring as the stage of menstrual cycle transits, then one is required to commence the treatment of fibrocystic (Hooley, Scoutt, & Philpotts, 2013). Another clear sign and symptoms are the appearance of nipple discharge after breasts become lumpy.

Diagnosis begins with performing an ultrasound which helps in determining if the lump is full of solid or fluid. If ultrasound suggests that the lump is full of fluid and solid components, then the situation is said to be complex cyst hence a biopsy is done to avoid any occurrence of cancer. Treatment of fibrosis is done by either removing the fluid if it causes discomfort by putting a hollow and thin needle into the cyst and draining the fluid (Hooley et al., 2013). If cysts continue coming back, then surgery is done as an option to remove them. For women with severe symptoms, tamoxifen and androgens may be prescribed for them with close supervision since they render the patient with lots of side effects.

Mastitis physical and laboratory assessment is based on the unusual appearance of milk which may be bloody, with serum, off-color or watery (Pirro, Fraatz, & Froyman, 2012). In case of laboratory results suggest that abnormal milk contains varying clots and puss, swelling and paining breasts indicate that presence of mastitis. It is also known as lactation mastitis, and it is said to be a condition that emerges in the first three months after giving birth. Fernandez et al. (2014) outline that for the women who are not lactating, the condition is known as periductal mastitis due to regular smoking that damages milk ducts increasing their vulnerability to infection.

Treatment of mastitis involves taking anti-biotics which have minor side effects on the baby like runny stools, but which end after treatment is over. For blocked duct, one needs to apply self-care techniques like taking plenty of water and breastfeeding the baby more with the affected breast to ensure that it is thoroughly drained.

Breast Cancer

After a series of laboratory screening of lymph nodes in the armpit, breast abnormalities or feeling of lumps, a mammogram x-ray is done in case there is need to evaluate abnormal breast condition. Goldhirsch et al. (2013) suggest that the most appropriate form of treatment after diagnosis is surgery and an additional treatment after chemotherapy, however, there are limitless options for treating cancer. Lee et al. (2012) outline the kinds of chemotherapy applicable for cancer treatment as lumpectomy, mastectomy, sentinel node biopsy among others.



Fernandez, L., Arroyo, R., Espinosa, I., Marin, M., Jimenez, E., & Rodriguez, J. M. (2014). Probiotics for human lactational mastitis. Beneficial microbes, 5(2), 169-183.

Goldhirsch, A., Winer, E. P., Coates, A. S., Gelber, R. D., Piccart-Gebhart, M., Thurlimann, B., ... & Bergh, J. (2013). Personalizing the treatment of women with early breast cancer: highlights of the St Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2013. Annals of oncology, 24(9), 2206-2223.

Hooley, R. J., Scoutt, L. M., & Philpotts, L. E. (2013). Breast ultrasonography: state of the art. Radiology, 268(3), 642-659.

Lee, C., Raffaghello, L., Brandhorst, S., Safdie, F. M., Bianchi, G., Martin-Montalvo, A., ... & Emionite, L. (2012). Fasting cycles retard growth of tumors and sensitize a range of cancer cell types to chemotherapy. Science translational medicine, 4(124), 124ra27-124ra27.Pirro, F., Fraatz, K., & Froyman, R. (2012). U.S. Patent Application No. 13/624,179.


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