Erdmann, M, and R, Oxford (1990) Adult Language Learning Styles and Strategies in an Intensive Training Setting the modern language journal This study discloses how learners in language learning adapt to the new language and utilize it. It also talks about how the learning method favors the new language learning It was conducted in the school distinct. this study used observation; few elementary pupils were used to check on the tendency to overgeneralize a rule There is a tendency to overgeneralize a language rule. For instance, in English past, simple verbs end with ed. They may create generalizations and assume examples that dont fit or are closely related. Others apply a rule only to the context in which they first encountered a linguistic item This study was useful because helped to understand that both tendencies are not helpful in language learning as learners need both of them to take risks and apply a rule in a new context and to seek the limits or exemptions to the rule
Watkins, H.A, and Dr. Goodenough. (1981) Cognitive styles; essence and Origins Field Dependance and field independence. New York, International University Press This study evaluates how learners convert the perceived information into knowledge Conducted in a classroom of young language learners, this study used observation to look closely how well active experimentation and reflective observation works An active learner has active processing which involves doing something more practical or in the external world with the information either by explaining or discussing it. A reflective learner, on the other hand, has reflective processing that involves examining and manipulating information from within or introspectively This study was important because it helped us develop new ways to interact with both types of learners. We learnt that active learners learn well in situations that enable them to do something physical and reflective learners learn well in situations that provide them with opportunities to think about the information being presented therefore language should include a variety of active learning experiences such as conversations, enactment of dialogues and mini-dramas and team competitions and also have reflective experiences such as brief writing exercises and question formula exercise
Griggs, S.A. and R.S. Dunn selected case studies of the learning style preferences of gifted students. Gifted child quarterly 28, This study shows how teachers can use effective matching styles and how these matching styles can significantly enhance student behavior at the primary and secondary level enforcing language instruction it was conducted in a foreign language class to understand how well students learn depending on the methodology used 10 percent of what students learn through reading is retained while 90 percent of what students learn through speaking and doing something is retained We learned that students learn more when information is presented in a variety of ways or modes than when only one mode is used. This shows that monotony of teaching styles is not good for effective learning and comprehension of learned material and knowledge acquisition
Title Focus Methodology Findings Importance
Chapelle, C., (2010)if intercultural competence is the goal what are the materials? .in proceedings of CERLL, International Competence Conference, Tucson.Arizona This study explains why there should be intercultural teaching in language classes and how best the teacher should approach such a lesson considering the presence of multicultural state in their classroom to avoid ruining the mutual relationship in diverse cultures It was conducted in Tucson elementary to show how foreign language learning should increase in students intercultural teaching in language classes The teaching and learning of culture allows the learners to see and understand the relationship between different cultures and critically analyze the cultures including their own With this teaching we recognize intercultural stereotypes and evaluate them, we also learn to develop awareness of types of causes of cultural misunderstanding between members of different cultures
Bonwell, C.C., and J.A. Eison 1979 active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom ASHER-ERIC Higher education Report No. 1. Washington DC This study was conducted to show the importance of active learning in a classroom environment. By this, they meant that for effective language learning to take place both the teacher and the learner should be actively involved in the learning and teaching process It was conducted in a language classroom to show how active learning makes an interesting class and increases the learner interest to acquire more knowledge to showcase. When a teacher is teaching without involving the learners, then they are using one-way teaching. The problem with this method is that it does not ascertain that whatever the teacher intends to pass on is what the learners are taking in. This could make the learning process pointless since not much is being acquired especially in a foreign language class. However when students are actively involved in the lesson in that they are able to participate in one way or another then the classroom will not only be intresting but also learner will be interested to learn more and practice it in class With this study we learn that when the class is active it is also interesting . the teacher can communicate one on one with the learners hence understanding their needs and meeting them.
Dale, E. (1969). Audiovisual methods in teaching, 3rd Ed. New York, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston This study explains the importance of using audio and visual objects to teach language This research was conducted in an elementary classroom to show the need for audio and visualized objects to teaching language As seen from the study language is a set of habits with vocabulary being of less concern. Pupils learn language by repetition of structural patterns and eventually automate the structures with the aid of encouragement and reinforcement by the teacher. Besides that the use of visuals like photographs and drawings, sketches and cartoons to illustrate and reinforce the meanings of words and vocabularies. Showing films, video tapes and live dramatizations to illustrate lessons in novels, short stories and plays. Teachers need to make drastic changes to address a variety of learning styles and effectively increase language learning
Gunderson, B., and D. Johnson. 1980. building positive attitudes by using Cooperative language groups. Foreign Language Annals This study shows how a teacher can also improve learning of foreign language by giving the students an option of cooperation and its significance It was conducted in a classroom with older pupils just to show how group work can be effective especially in language classroom There are many ways of involving an active learner. However, allowing them to cooperate amongst themselves and even with the reflective learner helps them improve their verbal skills and also learn from their friends what they had missed. Sometimes group work could be a better way of helping those who had least understood to get the concept. Cooperate groups can be organized by the teacher based on how the learners are cognitively or the teacher can allow them to structure their groups though sometimes this might not be effective Cooperative language groups are important because they help the effective learners understand more and express themselves more. Lack. Denying them the chance to interact actively could impose a significant impact on their interest in learning the language
F.M Felder, R. Brent. (1996)Understanding student differences,
This study helps the teacher understand the different student differences and how it affects content retention It was conducted in Arizona elementary schools to show how each learner difference works and how it can be approached How a teacher approaches their work is driven by the learner difference. There are four groups of learners, i.e., sequential processors who tend to seek clear directions and are usually thoroughly neat workers, precise processors are identified as information specialists. We also have technical processors who are specified as hands on builders, and lastly, there are the confluent processors who are best described as those who march to a different drummer, creative imaginers. From this groups, we learn that the pupils who will appreciate language most are those that process sequentially, precisely and confluent the technical processors might handle technical subjects better From this study, it is important to understand the type of students one is teaching and how best one cannot utilize their differences to effect best learning environment.
Jacob, E., and B. Mattson (1987) using cooperative learning with language minority students: A report from the field. Washington: Center for Language Education This study states the importance of using a teaching method that is both effective for the learners and comfortable with the instructor It was conducted in most schools around the state to show how methods use in instruction are very important determinants of a comfortable teaching environment or an effecting learning class Most teachers who were confronted with the instructional techniques felt that it is impossible to do all the techniques in a course and still be able to cover the syllabus. Technique like inductive and deductive presentation of course material, assigning repetitive drill exercise to provide practice in basic vocabulary without overdoing making liberal use of visuals and audio and also balance concrete information cannot be utilized at the same time With this study, we recognize that the extensive use of some of the approaches particularly that involving student activity in class. This idea does not mean that all techniques at one but rather pick several that seem relevant. Keep the ones that work. In this way, a teaching instruction that is effective for students and comfortable for the teacher will come out naturally
The study is meant to bring an understanding of the relationship between the teaching models and student characteristics It was conducted in a language class to check out on the different teaching models and the best time to use the in teaching and the type of students or the student characteristics that match the models Matching models like that of John Carroll, Cruickshank, and proctors that work well with students characteristics are a stimulation to effective language learning for example in the first model students are given an opportunity to learn and are also provided with quality instruction whereby the teacher organizes the subject matter in to manageable learning units, develops specific learning objective for each unit, develop appropriate summative assessment measure and plan and implement group teaching strategies From the study, we learn that the teaching-learning process requires appropriate models to work effectively
Cummins, J. 2010. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics
This study indicates another distinction in cognitive style that is based on categorizing This study was conducted during an English lesson in Ell. To show how learners have a tendency of categorizing objects depending on their cognitive structures The way in which people sort objects into classes or groups constitutes a dimension of individual difference in cognitive structure. When given an array of objects and asked to sort them out in various categories learners used different criteria and provided varying number of categories With this teaching, we recognize the different for...
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