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Literature Review on Fear - Paper Example

7 pages
1835 words
University of Richmond
Type of paper: 
Literature review
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According to Aube et al. (2014), emotional communication plays an important role incommunalrelations. It provides perilous evidence about the sentimental state of the surrounding environment and the emitter. There are different ways of passing information regarding emotional intelligence such as through the facial expression by human beings, which is controlled by the amygdala. Other than the expression through the face, the amygdala is responsible for different human behaviors such as anger, disgust, and happiness as well as decrypting of fear, which is conveyed through signs.The function of the amygdala is maintaining constancythroughout the indulgence of incentives relating to graphical modalities and peril in the auditory. Ostensibly, the receptiveness of the organ to impetuses is neitherrestricted to innate nor biological impetuses as suggested by other literature (Aube et al. 2014). The voxels in the amygdala provides information to a person about the existence of extortions in the surroundings and prepares a person for the precautions to be taken.

A research conducted by Aube et al. (2014) on how emotions are processed in the body, indicated that amygdala`s left side was liable for the processing of fear irrespective of the basis. The left more activity compared to other parts of the body when an individual depicted a fearful expression (Aube et al. 2014). Apparently, there is a relationship between music and different emotions portrayed by human beings such as fear and happiness. Music is designated as a powerful instrument that can activate emotional state in spite of not having any biological role. Reports from research indicate that musical emotions are caused by circuits in the brain that evolved from emotional to vocal responses. Furthermore, the association between music and emotion is not taught, but as a substitute, it is an innate mechanism that is related to the expression through the face. A different study was conducted and its primary objective was categorizing the different parts of the brain that were liable for different emotions and whether the magnitude experienced during different emotions was different (Aube, et al. 2014). The outcomes from the research indicated that people who were tested reacted to various emotional stimuli despite the surroundings they were. Ostensibly, the surroundings did not affectthe performance of the experiment in any way. The outcomes from the experiment discovered that the effects of fear transformed to an increase in the activity of unilateral left hippocampus and there was a significant relationship in the left amygdala amongst musical vocalization and fearful music. Apparently, there was no difference in the effects of fear in both the brains of the females and males. The outcomes from the research also noted a significant stimulation in the anterior insula and the amygdala in the response of expressions demonstrating fear. In essence, the Amygdala`s and the hippocampus`central role is the indulgence of stimuli linked with the threat (Aube et al. 2014).

Authors Koelsch, et al. (2013) and on the information from Aube et al. (2014) about the relationship between music and emotions by saying that there is scant information relating to fear that is musically evoked. Koelsch, et al. (2013) conducted a research where eight individuals were exposed to listen fear-evoking and joy-evoking music and subsequently their state of emotion were measured regarding arousal, valence, fear, and joy. The outcomes from the experiments indicated that the concentration of bold signal decreased during terror and increased during pleasure. Also, exposure to music evoking fear increased the bold signals in the right somatosensory cortex. The results are similar to the experiment conducted by Aube et al. (2014) where the effects of fear translated to an increase in the activity of bilateral left hippocampus, and there was a significant correlation in the left amygdala between musical vocalization and fearful music. In both experiments, there is either an increase or a decrease in a body organ when subjected to an emotion. From the experiment performed by Koelsch et al. (2013), an increase in the duration of each trial led to an increase in activities that are emotion-specific in the auditory cortex. The superficial amygdala retorted quickly at the beginning of each stimulus then later on declined. The analysis of Psychophysiological Interaction exposed the emotional function of the connectivity of insula, auditory and both the parietal and attentional structures. The outcomes from the experiment also showed that the sensory cortex performs a similar role like the central hub.Apparently, there is a connection between the superficial amygdala and the auditory cortex in the course of a nervous moment because of the sensitivity of SF to social signals. When an individual is experiencing fear, the SF connects to visual cortex leading to an increase in the level of visual alertness and the shift of actions involuntarily during the signs of danger. Notably, the information on involuntary actions are as a result of fear because of the presence of danger is similar to that of Aube, et al. (2014) where the author says the voxels in the amygdala inform an individual about the existence of threats in the environment and prepares a person for the precautions to be taken. Authors Koelsch et al. (2013) agree with writers Aube, et al. (2014) by describing music as a powerful tool that can trigger significant reactions in the body involving emotions. Apparently, some of the feelings are sought from music by human beings as a source of consolation or motivation. In essence, music may trigger different emotions such as fear or happiness and may affect an individual either positively or differently (Koelsch et al. 2013).

The Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is a disorder affecting the genes which lead to abnormalities in the bone formation, short stature, and larger than the average size of the head. In other terms, the neurofibromatosis type 1 are autosomal disorders in the genetics caused by mutation of the chromosomal gene and is expressed physically in affected individuals. The genetic disorder often affects the abilities of the children. Lewis et al. (2017) investigate the recognition of the facial emotional expression of children with the disorder. Notably, there is a great correlation between face perceptions, paths in face scan, and the identification of emotion.Some of the characteristics associated the chromosomal disorder are folding of the skin, lisch nodules, and benign tumors. Common complications of the disorder include psychological comorbidities prevalence and cognitive impairments. The NF1 causes children to develop poor social skills as well as challenges with interpersonal relationships. The disorder makes children develop fear during events where they are required to interact with their fellow normal children. The information obtained by Lewis et al. (2017) is similar to that of Aube, et al. (2014) that when an individual experiences fear, the superficial amygdala connects to visual cortex leading to an increase in the level of visual alertness and the shift of actions involuntarily and may indicate signals of discomfort that may turn out to be a dangerous emotion when not controlled (Lewis et al. 2017). The study on the facial investigation was performed on 21 children who had an NF1 disorder and results were to be compared against 29 developing controls. The children were examined on the correlation between face perceptions, paths in face scan, and the recognition of emotions. The results obtained revealed that children with NF1 had an inadequate identification of emotions displaying fear and anger when compared to those acting as controls. Also, the children with NF1 spent more time in trying to view the face as compared with those serving as controls. The results in the article concluded that the impairments in the identification, interpretation, and perception of information from the faces were an essential aspect of the phenotype concerned with social-cognitive of NF1(Lewis et al. 2017). Apparently, the article suggests that emotions such as fear and happiness are controlled by a phenotype in the body. However, the information contradicts with that of Koelsch et al. (2013) and Aube et al. (2014), which state that emotions are controlled by the hippocampus and the Amygdala.

The arousal of fear is widely used to change behavior as well as to carry out effective campaigns both in politics and in the health industry. There are different appeals used by health administrators to cause fear in human beings. Two theories namely; the extended parallel process model and the protection motivation theory have been used to study the concept of fear in human beings (Ruiter et al. 2014). Individuals who design health messages believe that there is great persuasive power in the arousal of fear. A good example of a method used to induce fear is given during the packaging of smoking cigarettes where there are texts and graphics in the sachets, warnings individuals about the dangers of using the substance. Fear-inducing mechanisms are also incorporated in the traveling industry as measures used to combat traffic accidents. Through campaigns, displaying bloody consequences is usually addressed to the young people as well as reckless drivers as a means of combating the occurrences of the accidents. Fear as an emotion is used to stop or prevent more damages from taking place either voluntarily or involuntarily. Also, the fear-inducing methods help individuals to reduce reckless behaviors and adopt innocuous behaviors (Ruiter et al. 2014). In Europe, cigarette smoking was significantly used by males and females as well as young people who did not even have sources of income. The introduction of warning images and text in the cigarette packages lead to a decrease in the number of individuals who smoked due to the health warnings. It was a strategic move because individuals saw the dangers that came up as a result of the harmful substance in the cigarettes and consequently stopped smoking to keep their bodies safe (Ruiter et al. 2014). However, in contrast to the useful role of fear-inducing mechanisms, fear arousal may lead to defensive responses such as less responsiveness to the health messages, risk denial, and biases in the processing of the information by the drug abusers. Fear arousal affects the way people ironically respond to health messages by motivating people to do the harmful thing more often.The behavior is similar to that one spoken about by Aube, et al. (2014) where fear may make a person develop more dangerous behaviors that pose threats to human lives. Fear may promote, motivate or enhancing a protective action, which might be interpreted negatively by a different person who is not knowledgeable. However, stimulating fear by use of threats concerning patients who suffer from diseases such as cancer, which is as a result of smoking, may help to reduce cases of the substance that is being campaigned against. After fear is aroused, the health practitioners recommend protective or preventive measures.Several theories have been formed relating to terror such as the protection motivation theory that suggests that fear activates coping and threat appraisals. Coping appraisals involves assessing the efficiency of potential responses whereas threat appraisal determines the severity of threats. Both of the assessments create a protective behavior. According to the Ruiter et al. (2014)., fear is used in the reduction of risky behaviors by strengthening, promoting, and building awareness of an individual`s efficacy. The conclusion made is that fear-inducing methods are effective ways of combating negative behavi...

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