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Immigration, Exclusion, and Taxation: Anti-Chinese Legislation in Gold Rush California

7 pages
1765 words
Middlebury College
Type of paper: 
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

This article statement attempts to answer the reasons and origin for Chinese- exclusion. Understanding the reason for Chinese exclusion from California provides intuition of the 19th-century ethnic tension and the experiences of other immigrants like the Japanese who were also forced out of America. This article postulates that the Chinese exclusion was not merely about racism and nativism, a deep introspection of the Chinese situation in California portrays that racial discrimination was not the main reason why they were pushed out of California. The thesis statement also incorporates other immigrates exclusion from California (Kanazawa, 2005).

The author seamlessly highlights the main points in support of the thesis. He discusses all other reasons behind Chinese exclusion from California beside racism and nativism. For instance, he points out that the Chinese immigrants reduced the bargaining power of natives for scarce jobs, this intense competition propelled the exclusion motion. On the other hand, He also points out that the exclusion was driven by the depressed labor market condition. The politics of Chinese-exclusion were largely economic perpetuated, for instance, the Chinese at some point started competing directly with the white-owned firms (Kanazawa, 2005). The author coherently provides evidence that the Chinese Exclusion was not just based on racism and nativism but also on the interests of labor and management. Additionally, the author explains reasons that might have delayed the Chinese-exclusion from California and America at large. The author elaborates that the Chinese workers were cheaper yet more productive than the natives. Therefore, their presence was beneficial to the white-owned firms because they paid them low wages a factor that increased their total profits. The employers, therefore, delayed the exclusion because they needed the low wage labors. Essentially, the author proves that the Chinese- exclusion was delayed by stating the period when the first immigrant entered California and when the exclusionary laws were enacted. The author demonstrates that Chinese contributed to the economy significantly regarding state and local tax revenues yet they did not demand public services such as schools and hospitals because most of them were male adults (Kanazawa, 2005). It was about 30n years that the state took the exclusionary laws seriously because they had utilized the Chinese labor to put their financial needs in order.

The author directly relates the thesis with the information discussed in the body, in his conclusion he reinstates that the Chinese-exclusion debate was based on economic factors because the natives were threatened by the inexpensive Chinese labor (Kanazawa, 2005). He correlates the thesis with the evidence presented in the article by concluding that the exclusion was continually delayed because of political factors.

The author supported his arguments sufficiently; he cited at list three resources on one page. He used a total of twenty references both archival materials and secondary sources to provide evidence of past events (Kanazawa, 2005).

Murphy, Paul. Sources and Nature of Intolerance in the 1920s

This articles thesis statement is a question of whether modern science techniques can be relied upon in the analysis of uncertain historical materials. The author of this article elaborates how American historians have used modern science to investigate the shady side of the nation characterized by intolerance, prejudice, nativism, and xenophobia. This article show majority of American historians have tried to look for insight about intolerance in the past by utilizing the findings of scholars in related disciplines (Murphy, 1964).

The author provides enough argument about the interdisciplinary approach to past events. The author coherently shows that a meaningful analysis of xenophobia in the last decade cannot be understood well if the historians utilize the modern science technique to conclude. Especially in Europe, secondary sources the author uses portray how the Europe natives portrayed extreme aversion against foreigners or strangers (Murphy, 1964). On the other hand, the author provides evidence to show the inadequacy of the modern techniques to fully elaborate how the natives of Europe and other nations disrespect the beliefs of other minority communities like Jews. The author elaborates how the reliance on modern science techniques to evaluate the sources and nature of intolerance is unreliable. He raises the question of confidence because as he states most of this advanced science techniques utilize evidence form current materials (Murphy, 1964).

In the last paragraph of the article, the author emphasizes on the thesis statement, the question of reliance is stressed. The author elaborates that imprecise historical materials cannot be evaluated correctly using modern scientific techniques. The conclusion paragraph is merely a reinstatement of the thesis and the information discussed in the body. The author repeats in concise form the information in the article's body that a meaningful analysis cannot be achieved if researcher utilizes modern science techniques

The author utilizes archival materials to provide enough evidence pertaining, the nature of intolerance. Secondary resources are also used in this journal to discuss the nature of intolerance in the past (Murphy, 1964). The article is referenced sufficiently, at list each page has at list two-three footnotes whereby each point is cited by the source.

Myers, Denys P., The American Angle of the world war

This articles thesis statement vacillates between American publication of diplomatic documents, foreign relations and the World war. The thesis statement describes America's perception of diplomatic relation with other countries. The article describes United States foreign relations and how they regard this policy. The entire paper discusses the issues of foreign affairs and the kind of relationship the state has with other nations' (Myers, 1929).

The body of this article uses enough to prove to admit that the United States regards diplomatic relation as a mere observation of the rules of international law that they are compelled to follow and not a simple practice of policy. The author coherently supports the article thesis by citing the year 1795 when the members of Congress subscribed to Cobbett's translation of Martens treatise on international law because they needed a deep introspection of the policy. The author also quotes the constitution to describe the United States stand on foreign relations and application of international laws. The author also refers to numerous congressional documents to portray to supplement the regular series of foreign relations (Myers, 19290. The author also utilizes the War documents to discuss the American history pertaining the world war also to supplement the regular series of foreign relations. The author also shows the significance of the war documents by describing how they were used to supplement the annual submission of foreign relations. The information in the body highlights how the United States progress in publishing diplomatic correspondence (Myers, 1929).

In the concluding paragraph, the author seamlessly emphasizes on the thesis that the United States needed a huge consideration of the International law. The emphasis on international law was elaborated in this section when the author describes that the United States regarded the International law as a way of obeying and adhering to international laws and not a simple exercise of the policy. The conclusion paragraph summarizes the general implication of the United States early developments in the publication of documents concerning the war and utilizing them as supplementary of diplomatic relationships (Myers, 1929). This section concludes that the American publications were of great significance considering the numerous subjects it incorporated.

Nelson, Anna Kasten, President Kennedys National Security Police: A Reconsideration

This article discusses the origin of the National Security Council (NSC), a council that has dominated in the world of foreign policy since its establishment in 1947.

The article elaborates why the creation of the National Security Council was necessary. The author described the tension that prevailed between the Soviet Union and the United States. The article also elaborates the scope of the National Security Council.

At first, the body paragraph explains the thesis further by describing its importance in ensuring peace. The author explains dissatisfaction by the policymakers about the diplomacy of the State necessitating creation of the Nation Security Council. The author explained how the National Security Council had a ubiquitous presence (Nelson, 1991). In this article, the author stipulates that the National Security Council main objective was to coordinate the numerous strands of national security policy among the units working under the rubric of national security. The author elaborates that the National Security Council significantly improved national relations amongst different nations. It was a tool that head of states applied to mitigate the animosity between the Soviet Union and the USA. The author relates the story of the National Security Council with that of the evolution of the paper organization established in 1947 (Nelson, 1991).

The concluding part summarizes the significance of the National Security Council in improving public relations among states who were dominated with hatred to one another. The author summarizes the article by displaying the achievements of the Organization regarding improving foreign relations. The animosity between the Soviet Union and the USA was a threat to all nations. The author displays his deep introspection of issues concerning world peace and economic well-being in this last section of the article. The author utilizes the thesis in this section by relating the National Security Council creation with world peace. In essence, an audience can read this part and understand the entire article because it summarizes the entire article in a few sentences.

The author uses references coherently by citing uniformly in the entire paper uniformly. At last each paper contains three- four footnotes to ensure that each argument source is shown. Majority of the references in this document are secondary sources, past material that contain information of state affairs before and after the creation of the National Security Council.

Scheitzer, Mary M., World War II and Female Labor Force Participation Rates.

`The primary article thesis is the establishment of the level of female labor force participation about the amount being paid at the time. The article argues that during the Second World War the remuneration rates were very high which was a major approach to entice more women to joining the working communities to earn a living. In this case, the article argues that an increase of wages for the female workers was observed during the Second World War compared to any other time in the American culture. The article establishes the different reasons that push women to seek employment with the organization, and it argues that a decrease in family financial resources can increase the willingness of females in the community to seek employment.

The body paragraphs are congruent and also provide supportive information which can be used by an organization make important information available that promotes individuals participation at an organization level. The author shows that high salaries and better treatment are major reasons why women engage in commercial activities with the aim of becoming breadwinners for their families...

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