9-20: Is Jennifer right about the need to evaluate the workers formally? The managers? Why or Why not?
Jennifer is right about the need to appraise workers formally. The appraisal process will help identify employee's weak areas and come up with strategies for improving on them. The managers need to have a list of quality standards across all areas of operations such as cleanliness, punctuality, safety efficiency adherence to budget among other parameters. These measures should help in developing all dimensions upon which appraisal will be carried out (Dessler, 2011).
9-21: Develop a performance appraisal method for the workers and managers in each store.
For a start, a universal appraisal method should be developed to form a basis of a basis for appraisal techniques per store. I would recommend the paired comparison method for a start as it would promote a sense of competition among employees thus promoting efficiency (Dessler, 2011). As the managers have already identified different parameters of the job, they will go to the next step of comparing every employee with every other employee based on these characteristics and then determine the best employee (Dessler. 2011).
9-1: What is the purpose of a performance appraisal?
Performance appraisal is equally termed as performance evaluation or performance review. Thus, performance appraisal is that method used by senior management or consultant determines and documents work related performance of an employee. A performance appraisal aims to improve on unsatisfactory performance or to reinforce exemplary performance. The assessment should result in a plan giving details on what measures the employee should take to improve their performance (Dessler, 2011).
9-2: Who should do the appraising?
Their immediate supervisor should do the appraisal of an employee. The supervisor is responsible for the subordinate's performance hence he is the best-placed person to conduct the assessment. The Human Resource department on provides an advisory role on what appraisal tools to use, but leaves the final decisions on procedures to the operating managers (Dessler, 2011).
9-3: Discuss the pros and cons of four performance appraisal tools.
Performance appraisal tools come with their advantages and disadvantages. The graphics rating scale is simple to use and provides a quantitative rating for each employee. Its downside is that it is affected by appraisal problems such as unclear standards, halo effect, and bias among others. Alternation ranking is simple to use and is it avoids issues of appraisal (Dessler, 2011). Its disadvantage is that it causes disagreements among employees and may be unfair if all employees are excellent. The forced distribution method is suitable since it ends up with a pre-determined number or % of people in each group. However, employee's appraisal reports depend on the choice of cut-off points of the appraiser. Finally, Management by objectives is advantageous since it is tied to agree upon performance objectives jointly. Its disadvantage is that its time consuming (Dessler, 2011).
9-4: Explain how you would use the alternation ranking method, the paired comparison method, and the forced distribution method.
When using the alternation ranking method, the first step is to list all the names of the employees being ranked depending on the dimensions of measured and then cross out any names not well enough to be classified. Then the second step is rank employees from the best to the worst depending on the traits of the dimensions in use. Then finally chose the next highest and lowest and list them in a table until all employees have been ranked (Dessler, 2011).
When using the paired comparison method, the first step is to identify different traits of the job, e.g., quality and quantity of work. Then compare each employee with every other employee on these characteristics and then determine the Best employee (Dessler, 2011).
Forced distribution method works like a grading curve. The first step is to come up with grading rates in percentages depending on different work categories. The second level is to grade employees in these classes and then make a total of their proportions in the ranks. The total score shows the best performing and lowest performing employee (Dessler, 2011).
9-5: Explain in your own words how you would go about developing a behaviorally anchored rating scale.
Developing a behaviorally anchored rating scale can be described in as a five-step process. The first thing I would do is to write incidents. These are easily achieved by asking personnel to write specific illustrations of effective and ineffective performance. Then the second step is to ask the same people to cluster the incidents into five or more dimensions (Dessler, 2011). The third level will be to ask another group who are conversant with the job to relocate the first incidents to the cluster they think best fits. Scaling the episodes then comes in. The behavior described by the events is rated on how efficiently or ineffectively it represents performance on the dimensions. Finally, I will choose about six or seven incidents as the dimensional behavioral anchors (Dessler, 2011).
9-6: Explain the problems to be avoided in appraising performance.
When carrying out the process of performance appraisal, the problems of unclear standards, halo effect, central tendency, leniency or strictness, and bias need to be avoided to make the process efficient (Dessler, 2011). Halo effect occurs when an impression created in one area tends to influence the opinion of another area whereas central tendency is the behavior of values to cluster around the mean mode and median of the benefits (Dessler, 2011). Bias occurs when the supervisors favor sure subordinates at the expense of the others leaving some feeling discriminated. It also reduces motivation among employees thus decreasing productivity. These problems serve to undermine appraisals, graphics and rating scales in particular. If one of these problems occurs during the appraisal process, the results cannot be said to portray the actual picture of employee performance within the organization (Dessler, 2011).
9-7: Compare and contrast performance management and performance appraisal
The difference between performance management and performance appraisal is that performance management is the continuous process of identifying, measuring and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning their performance with the organizational goals (Dessler, 2011). Performance appraisal, on the other hand, means evaluating an employee's current or past performance relative to his or her performance standards. Performance management is the work of the Human Resource department while the immediate supervisor does performance appraisal to the employee (Dessler & Pearson 2017). Both processes compare in that they aim at assessing and improving the performance of individuals within an organization. Both methods aim at improving the performance of the employees while at the same time improving the quality of work and productivity of the firm (Dessler, 2011)
Dessler, G. (2011). Fundamentals of human resource management. Pearson Higher Ed. 5th edition, 515-554
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