1. Follow up studies Required to address Swansons concern on non-caring nursing
According to Smith et al. (2013), there are hierarchical levels that need to be followed up to ensure that nursing intervention program becomes a success. The first hierarchical follow-up plan is termed as level 1 which focuses on the characteristic of a person who has the capacity for caring. Swanson questions the appropriateness of the assumptions about whether the traits are inherent or if the environment may induce them. Level 2 is concerns and commitments. On the other hand, level 3 are conditions which are usually patient nurse. Level 4 stipulates the relevance of studying qualitative and quantitative nursing inquiry and the therapeutic interventions. Swanson communicates about the final level 5 which corresponds about negative and positive consequences of caring that should be followed up even after a patient is discharged. Swanson made it necessary to incorporate both the conceptual frameworks and empirical support.
Since non-caring practices lead to frightening aspects to both the patient and the nurse, the nursing field should be taken into consideration to offer the nurses the required experience to avoid despair, alienation, humiliation, and lingering of bad memories (Smith et al., 2013, p.64). Therefore, the nurse needs to expand their knowledge and to think to streamline their thoughts towards measuring rigorously applied and ensuring that the clinical approaches are promoting healing, optimal well-being, and recovery (Smith et al., 2013, 93).
2. The characteristics of Swansons level IV: Caring actions section of her literary meta-analysis on caring?
According to Swanson, the characteristics of a caring nurse is in the direction of analyzing the verbal texts that are usually generated from the patient about what they consider to be caring. In most instances, caring should consider what the patient finds as moral values to avoid causing harm to the patients beliefs, and social well-being by applying unintended caring practices. The best way to offer a caring nursing practice is by knowing the patient well, contextually, knowing the patients feeling to comfort the patient under therapeutic methods. According to Swanson (1991, p.162), caring is the process of nurturing a person towards meeting the personal sense of commitment and responsibility. Also, caring in nursing involves the capability to value one another through role-related actions, conditions, and consequences. Additionally, level IV caring actions include maintaining the belief, sustaining the faith of both the patient and the nurse and enabling the patient to face the future with meaning. Also, it involves striving to understand an event and the meaning of the event in the life of both the patient and the nurse.
3. Swansons Caring Theory and Application to the Theory of Caring to Organize Caring Actions
Swanson applied five caring processes to the middle range theory which makes it possible for the middle range theory to be used to any practice setting with honesty. Swanson mentioned knowing to be a form of understanding the event and working in accordance to the practices that avoid making prior assumptions about an event, philosophical personhood and the willingness to recognize one another as significant beings. Being with is the second caring process that Swanson outlined towards creating an organized, caring practice (Swanson, 1991). It specifies the relevance of staying emotionally active, present, sharing feelings and conveying an ongoing availability. The third is doing for which is involved in the middle range theory to specify that one needs to do something that they would accept to be done by someone else to them. All aspects taken during the nursing process should be in the direction of comforting, dignity-preserving and protecting others needs. Enabling and maintaining beliefs are also among the five processes that are important in Swansons middle range theory.
Smith, M. C., Turkel, M. C., & Wolf, Z. R. (Eds.). (2013). Caring in nursing classics: An essential resource. Springer Publishing Company.
Swanson, K. (1991). Empirical Development of a Middle Range Theory of Caring. Nursing Research, 40(3).
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