Domestic violence and domestic homicide is a major public health challenge in the United States. Domestic violence is defined as a pattern of abusive behavior that an individual uses to maintain control and power over his/her partner. Domestic violence include psychological, economic, emotional, sexual and physical actions or threats.
The article Domestic Violence: Nearly Three U.S. Women Killed Every Day by Intimate Partners by Mary Emily Ohara is about Karen Smith, a woman who was fatally shot by her husband, Cedric Anderson because she was reportedly considering divorcing. Cedric walked to the elementary school in San Bernardino, California, where Karen is a teacher and shot her killing her on the spot. The shooting rocked the community and brought to the surface a pervasive, ugly problem of intimate partner domestic violence and homicide. Based on the statistics from the Violence Policy Center, about three women are killed by former or current romantic partners. No evidence was presented to show that Karen had filed any claims on domestic violence against Cedric, but her mother reported that the problems began when Karen said she wanted a divorce and she was leaving. Based on the San Bernardino Police report, Cedric had a history of domestic violence. Karen thought she had a perfect husband until the time she realized his behavior was odd. Despite the fact that Cedric had been convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence before, he owned a gun contrary to the federal gun laws. Such issues raise eyebrows on the legal systems and law enforcements on what can be done to reduce domestic violence.
Domestic violence happens in all gender, class or race, but black women like Karen are inexplicably affected. Past studies have shown that most partners usually turn abusive when the victim tries leaving the relationship. The violence increases when the victim says she wants a divorce or she is leaving the relation the relationship. Research shows that African American women account for about 13% of domestic violence and homicide victims in the United States. Black women are impacted around domestic violence, sexual violence and trafficking.
Hanlon, Brook, Demery, & Cunningham, (2016) carried out a study on Domestic homicide by looking at their neuropsychological profiles of murderers who killed their family members and intimate partners. The objective of their study was to determine the differences between domestic and non-domestic homicide offenders by looking at their neuropsychological status and psychiatric history. The study involved 153 participants convicted or charged with first degree murder in Arizona, Indiana, Colorado, Missouri and Illinois. Evaluations involved a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, detailed clinical interview and review of pertinent records such as interviews of collaterals, court documents, medical records, psychiatric record twice the ds, autopsy records and police reports. The study used standard crime classification criteria to test data collected. Since the main aim of the study was to determine the neuropsychological status of domestic and non-domestic homicide offenders, the study results showed that both groups presented greater impairment in memory domains, executive functioning, attention and intelligence. However, domestic homicide offenders had psychotic disorders or were under psychotic medication. This means that severe mental illness is one of the factors that lead to domestic homicides. Most domestic homicide offenders were observed to have the incidence of anti-social behavior. Most offenders also showed problematic neurologic histories such as a history of trauma or brain injury. Histories of mood disorder and substance abuse was evident in both groups. It is believed that substance abuse weaken inhibitory controls leading to homicides.
Linda Perlstein uses many statistics in her article, but she fails to show her sources. She notes that middle schoolers have become hopelessly obsessed and shamelessly self-absorbed with winning the admiration and esteem of their peers because their brain cannot keep up with such demand. Overall, the article provides a good concept and recommends that the more middle schoolers are involved and feel they are treated in a fair manner, the more they would not feel alienated from school. The article is also a good peace and an excellent resource for educators and administrators to find the most effective ways of teaching and handling this age group. Its layout is easy, simple to read and developed in a format, which makes it easy to use the article for quick reference. For the most part, the article is well organized and well written. Although the article is not an in-depth study, it is a significant contribution to the field of study.
The article is also full of practical data that can guide and support middle school teachers and their students in making connections between science and literature in the context of the local environment. The authors provide a learning opportunity that aimed at supporting the student to practice habits of mind, which bring literature and science together to create learning experiences where students can use theories, principles, and generalizations from different areas their area of interest. The layout of the article is easy, simple to read and developed in a format, which makes it easy to use the article for quick reference. Overall, the article provides a good concept and enforces an instructional framework that would support student's connections to their natural and social environment. However, using technology blindly in education for that reason may not support or reflect complex intelligence with the natural world. All in all, the article is relevant and very convincing. The study supported students in developing a positive view rather than stereotyping science as a dull and difficult. Besides searching for contents on the internet and linking the contents to science extends visions of language and literature. Approaching science as habits of the mind helped students to make a transition to science as a way of studying our environment. Using technology in education would enrich students to the local environment. By starting with the neighborhood in developing the website, the internet would allow for creativity in a manner that traditional learning cannot. Technological dimensions may be shaped to reflect students learning and experiences with their neighborhood but only metaphorically. The researchers sum up the project by saying that the website would help students to realize an intimate relationship with the world because the study focused primarily on taking students outside to document and represent what they observe.
The article provides educators with a practical overview of supporting middle school teachers and their students in making connections between science and literature in the context of the local environment. The suggestions for developing the website would allow for creativity in a manner that traditional learning cannot and reflect students learning and experiences with their neighborhood. The article would be a helpful guide for teachers and students who aim to make connections between science and literature in the context of the local environment.
Hanlon, R. E., Brook, M., Demery, J. A., & Cunningham, M. D. (2016). Domestic homicide: Neuropsychological profiles of murderers who kill family members and intimate partners. Journal of forensic sciences, 61(S1).
Kimmel, M. S. (2002). Gender symmetry in domestic violence: A substantive and methodological research review. Violence against women, 8(11), 1332-1363.
Kapoor, S. (2000). Domestic violence against women and girls.
Fischbach, R. L., & Herbert, B. (1997). Domestic violence and mental health: correlates and conundrums within and across cultures. Social science & medicine, 45(8), 1161-1176.
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