Annotated Bibliography on Management: Boards of Directors

2021-07-08 01:03:55
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Carnegie Mellon University
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Annotated bibliography
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Board Director Topic One

Citation Horner, S. V. (2016). CEO Directors: Going It Alone or Clustering on Boards? Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 15(1), 32.

What is the article about? Horner in his article exemplifies on the dynamics aspects of the Chief Executive Officers particularly the directors. He details that they operate as part of the board of other firms, but they offer their service as officials directors from outsiders. The study investigates the character of those firms that find it reasonable to hire chief officers who operate from outside the firms as well as the character of those executives that are found fit to be appointed as CEO directors, the study also examines the domicile firms of the appointed Chief officers and also the impact and outcomes that the hiring firms benefit by engaging the Executive directors. The article has also examined the occurrence of dynamic chief directors who offer services to company board operating from outside whereby the results obtained from the study were to some extent conflicting in regards to the firms having several Chief Executive Officers serving as directors. The potential and unique values in the performance of the CEO directors to the appointing firms as they govern and monitor the firms functions have also been discussed; this potential has been approved by agency theory, which is about the connection of the firms to fundamental resources as portrayed by the Resource Perspective Dependence (RDP), as well as giving advice and counsel to Chief Executive directors on of discharging the service task of the board. Essentially, they have a character that differs from those of other types of directors including insiders, grey directors, and non-CEO outsiders. This exclusive character is what adds value to the firms.

Why was the research performed? This research purposed to investigate the influence of other Chief Executive Officers on subsequent engagements of dynamic Chief directors on the company boards.

Findings This research reported findings that to some extent were found conflicting, there was an outcome that illustrated on the possibility of firms with an already existing CEO giving considerations to add an executive director on the board whose services will be from outside. The other contrasting finding was the possibility of firms being unwilling to hire directors with the same skills as to those already serving. In sum, the study reveals a rise in the value of the market in circumstances where Executive directors are present. Besides governance at fledging firms as well as the impact on managerial compensation is enhanced where CEO directors are present. The study also showed that CEO directors could impact firms with high governance needs on matters regarding advice and monitoring functions of boards by way of spreading institutional domination norms, in particular, small firms, the growing firms, and the firms with inexperienced Chief Executive Officers. Furthermore, the study indicates that those interested to be appointed as Executive directors are influenced by the impending growth in general awareness of trade opportunities to such boards as well as the reputation coupled with their service on a board alongside another prominent Executive director.

Strengths The value of the CEO directors is immense in the hiring firms, and outside constituencies due to their performance as they govern and monitor the firms function in a potential way regarded as unique.

Weaknesses The set of mixed findings in regards to firms having several Chief Executive Officers serving as directors or if there is resistance in firms to replicate the skills that already exist on the board.

Implications for Practice Monitoring companys operations are the key role of the board thus ensuring its vital smooth running. The present CEO of a firm opens the door for abusing the position since the powers accorded call for self-monitoring. Therefore, the need for CEO director to operate an outsider may be healthy for the firm.

Board Director Topic Two

Citation Heroux, S., & Fortin, A. (2016). Innovation: The influence of diversity and IT competence of boards of directors and executive management. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online), 8(3), 18.

What is the article about? The article is a research study on innovation as well as embracing technology various processes of production including accessing information as well as in communication since Information Technology is regarded as the main tool that drives the growth of productivity. The study shows that IT contributions to innovation are in regards to increasing harmonization and teamwork, reducing labor and capital inefficacies, increasing the share of the market, broadening the range of products, customizing services and a better reaction to client demands. The study also shows the significance of the influence by Boards of directors in pursuing innovation where they foster a context that eases and supports executives in pursuing innovation projects, this is in the light of Executive management in making decisions regarding how the resources will be allocated to enhance novelty in projects. The article also emphasizes on the need of the executive management and boards of directors to be competent in Information Technology since it is an advantage that leads to the innovation strategies. The management should equip the officers with the practical details of Information Technology that are understandable for a given business issue. The reciprocal understanding of the IT roles by the CIO as well as CEO leads to the tactical alignment of technology with business hence enhancing business performance through the contribution of the technology.

Why was the research performed? The research main purpose was examining the innovation competence of the Executive management and the board of directors as well as their influence on diversity.

Findings The result shows an association in the Information Technology competence as well as diversity in the production industry in the process of innovation, whereas diversity in regards in the tenure of the board and size of the firm has a relation to both types of novelty. On the contrary, when part of the board members lacks knowledge on Information Technology, there is a limit in the assessment of Information Technology based strategy.

Strengths The article is the first to document the effects of the influence of directors and executive management in pursuing innovation strategies considering that both groups have a mix of specific characteristics. Besides, the examination of Information Technology competence influence is critical to innovation. As such, the article compliments domination, IT literature and innovation. The whole schedule of firms was chosen on account of the large size of these businesses hence 95% of the marketplace capitalization was represented.

Weaknesses The limitations of this research are that the researchers measurement of dependent and independent variables was based on data assessment and qualitative descriptions obtained in public documents. Hence there may not have been a thorough description of innovation. On the other hand, there would be an overestimation of innovation efforts by some firms with the aim of polishing the firms image.

Implications for Practice Technology in the modern world has eased business across borders. Embracing Technology will enhance the management on the decisions it makes, the company will be in a position to know whether the performance is poor or admirable and also will be in a position to know the right time to hire and fire staffs. Productivity will be improved concerning quality, legal and environmental issues will be well handled, retention of staffs and increasing their motivation will also be improved.

Therefore, there is a need for Boards and Executive management to embrace Information technology immensely.

Board Director Topic Three

Citation Bendickson, J., Davis, P. E., Cowden, B. J., & Liguori, E. W. (2015). Why small firms are different: Addressing varying needs from boards of directors. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 25(2), 41.

What is the article about? The article discusses the importance of widely spreading the implications of small business that contributes significantly to the Economy of the United States. The article calls for the attention of the board of directors, members and even board of advisors in foreseeing that small firms can be in a position to have better monitors as well as accessing tremendous and relevant resources with the aim of reaching their perspective be it profits, market share, growth or goals. The article has also discussed several propositions including; small firms gaining a superior and more impactful admittance to proficiency and resources through diversification of board member compared to large firms, also functions like monitoring will be different by the farm size where monitoring will involve lesser tasks for boards of directors in smaller firms. Additionally, the relationship between the diversity of a member and the demands of monitoring will be moderated by the size of the firm such that larger firms will consider greater emphasis on finance and organization understanding of monitoring whereas small firms will consider more significant focus on industry and small business understanding to monitor. Also, the boards of the small firms will have less independence on monitoring due to the likelihood of the directors being owner appointed. Resource provision in small firms will have a larger role for boards of directors since resource functions differ on the bases on firm size. Furthermore, the relations between diversification on members and the resource demands will be moderated by the size of the firm where greater emphasis will be on large firms network while attractive access to a variety of resources in smaller firms.

Why was the research performed? The content of the article purposed to combine AT and RDT as a means of distinguishing between the functions of the board of directors and addressing the moderating effect of firm size.

Findings The research found out that there is an existing relationship on the diversity of the board members and the primary tasks of monitoring and the providing resources by the board members; this relationship is moderated by the size of the firm. Moreover, through appropriate member composition, small firms can enhance performance in different ways compared to large firms. Additionally, addressing the functions of monitoring and resource provision should be based on the size of the firm. There is also the fact that when business enterprises are dependent on key entrepreneurs, directors superior start-up skills are looked for by the firms which involve a higher level of dependent recompense.

Strengths Small businesses have a great impact on the economy of the United States.

Weaknesses Many suggestions remain unproven even though they are underpinned in previous study and hypothesis. Also, it was not possible to review and include all of the literature due to the affluence of research conducted regarding boards, Agency Theory, Resource Dependent Theory, stewardship theory as well as firm sizes.

Implications for Practice The literature of the board of director has given much greater emphasis to the large firms; it will be necessary to collect data for small businesses to enhance a better grasp on the needs of small businesses and entrepreneurs on their needs from the board of directors as well as advisors with an aim to achieve greater success. Notably, the steadiness of an economy and the monetary power results from small businesses hence they are the engine of growth.

Board Director Topic Four

Citation Ayadi, N., & Boujelbene, Y. (2013). The influence...

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