In this session, it is in order to review the various elements of learning. Here, the main subjects of discussion include the definition of waste, the reasons why waste is a problem, how the problem can be solved, and who is responsible for the problem. Foremost, wastes are materials that are either unwanted or unusable (Uses of Waste Material, 2014). It is mostly discarded after the primary use. Sometimes, waste can be toxic materials used in a particular process before being discarded. Waste disposal is a significant problem in the environment and can be the reason for many problems. Most wastes are dug in landfills, sometimes in quarries, and special dug holes. Eventually, most of the waste will rot but there are some that do not rot (Uses of Waste Material, 2014). In the city where there are a huge number of people but not enough facilities for disposal of wastes, the effects can be very detrimental to the health of the general public. Dangerous diseases such as dysentery and cholera find their way into the normal lives of individuals thereby elevating the risk of suffering in the cities.
The good thing is that there exist viable solutions to the problem of waste management (Jakab, 2011). For the problem of sewage, a good sewerage system that can take care of the population of an entire city can be designed and built to mitigate chances of people getting affected by the problem of wastes. Wastes are a real problem because it causes pollution, loss of resources, and it is also unsightly. There is a particular increase in the amount of garbage in towns with no proper disposal systems. This is especially when the garbage collection agency of a city does not take up its role seriously. The waste menace can be solved in a number of ways. First, there is the need to reduce, then reuse, and finally recycle (Jakab, 2011). In the solutions hierarchy, prevention comes first, followed by reducing, reusing, recycling, recovering the energy, and then disposing of. Prevention is more about being careful about how one uses something to reduce wear and damage (Hazardous Waste Management Plan, 2014). Damaged artifacts have to be repaired. When purchasing artifacts, priority should be given to the artifacts that are disposable. Reusing majorly stresses on using wastes as raw materials, for instance, using plastic bottles for composite bins. Recovering wastes locally and stockpiling wastes for reuse are other workable solutions for bettering the environment. In a city, it is the responsibility of a government to come up with comprehensive waste management plans including building sewerage systems to help alleviate not only the risk of diseases but also to help in conserving the environment (On the Road to Recovery, 2007)). Besides, manufacturers have the responsibility of ensuring that their products are environmentally friendly and can be used for a long time before the need to dispose of. Also, the user needs to be careful to ensure they do not have to purchase one product again and again. It is imperative to mention that it makes a lot of difference if the raw material is a waste because, at that point, there would not be a need to dispose of the material thus eventually playing a role in the environmental conservancy.
Understanding Cooperate social responsibility
The chapter explores the nature of cooperate social responsibility in an African context using Carols CSR pyramid as a model for descriptive analysis. Cooperate social responsibility is one form of corporate self-regulation incorporated into a business model. The policy works as a self-regulatory instrument in which a business observers and makes sure that it is actively compliant with various ethical standards and norms (Haerens & Zott, n.d.). There exist four faces of co-operating citizenship. Foremost, corporate social responsibility takes into account the conduct of an organization that dictates its economic profitability, ethical and social support, and ability to abide by the law. Roosevelt said the primary essential requisite of a good citizen of a good citizen is that they have the ability to pull their own weight. On corporations, this translates into profit making as a corporate responsibility (Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Restructuring and Farms Performance, 2010). Profit making is actually not adverse to good corporate citizenship. Currently, there is little relationship between the concepts of corporate social responsibility and ethics. Organizations can craft CSR policies that make them have impressive standards without possessing extraordinary levels of ethical standards or having high levels of virtuousness. It is on such grounds that this article brings together and discerns organizational ethical quality to examine the moral achievement of cooperate social responsibility. In the evolution of corporate social responsibility, there are four levels of responsibility: responsibility as a social obligation, responsibility as a social reaction, responsibility as social sensitivity, and responsibility as social action (Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Restructuring and Farms Performance, 2010). The world commission on environment and development formulated a report which was a response to a call by UN general assembly. The commission came up it many propositions to respond to the issue of environment and stability.
The triple P model- people, planet, and profit was a framework formulated by John Elkington. He suggested that an organization needs to prepare and distinguish different and bottom lines first of which would provide the account of people which is an indicator of the social responsibility of a company. The second P stands for Planet, which is a reckoning of the organization has been conscious when it comes to environmental conservancy and sustainability. The last P stands for profit which is the measure of return on investments. The fundamental purpose of TBL is to gauge the complete cost of an organizations participation in business. There is the challenge of difficulty in comparing the people and planet in terms of cash. In this regard, it is not easy to combine the three accounts and therefore they have to be accorded different, distinct consideration. Using the guidelines of the global reporting initiative is among some of the most established ways of reporting TBL. Others include a natural step which comprises back casting, and ISIS which is indicators, systems, Innovation, and strategy.
Business and sustainability: the age of greed
Greed is when a business makes money his fundamental responsibility. Business needs to be more than just making profits but about the general public good (Farmer & Hogue, 2011). While it easy to dodge responsibilities, it is virtually impossible to dodge the consequences of dodging the responsibilities. Mahatma Gandhi said that earth provides enough to take care of the need of everyone in it but not the greed of everyone in it. The age of greed is characterized by defensive corporate social responsibility. Here, every CSR practice is only undertaken in the event that it is ascertained that the value of shareholders will be protected. Therefore, certain volunteer programs by employees as well as expenditures are not common. Charitable CSR in the age o philanthropy, on the other hand, is where an organization moves in to support a number of environmental and social courses through sponsorships and donations which are essentially facilitated through a foundation, Chairmans fund or Trust and with the objective of empowering various groups in the community and civil society organizations. Strategic CSR in the age of management means an attempt to relate corporate social responsibility activities to the central business of the company. This is usually achieved through the adherence to the codes of CSR and the implementing environmental and social systems of management which includes a cycle of CSR policy development, target setting, auditing, implementation, and reporting.
Promotional CSR in the age of misdirection is what happens in the even that corporate responsibility and sustainability play out as public relation opportunity to promote the product and develop the brand, repute, and status of the organization. Promotional CSR often borrows on the practices strategic and charitable CSR and turning them into PR spin. Systematic CSR in the age of responsibility concentrates its operations on pointing out and handling the primary causes of the current unsustainability and irresponsibility Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Restructuring and Farms Performance, 2010). It does this through coming up with business models, making the products and services one to reckon with in the market and advocating for broadminded policies. Thus, while the strategic corporate social responsibility is geared towards promoting social and environmental issues aligning with its strategy, systematic CSR puts focus on appreciating the network of the macro level system, ecosystem, and society. Besides, it focuses on adjusting its strategy to manipulate the results for the greater ecological and human system.
The human banking greed has resulted in a severe global financial crisis. This phenomenon is multileveled consisting executive greed, corporate greed, financial market greed, and banking greed. Capitalism, due to its effect on earth and to the corporate world, is seen as an economic missile lacking a moral guidance system. If sustainability is anything to come by, there is a need for systematic CSR and responsible business Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Restructuring and Farms Performance, 2010). Investors need to utilize whatever weakness occurs from a probable financial correction as a chance to jump back on equity exposure. In short, there is a stock market correction that players in the market have to grapple with.
Case study review: Cadbury brothers and Cadbury
In 1994, Kraft, the America food giant, purchased Cadbury with a whopping $21.8 B. until the time of its purchase, Cadbury had built a strong legacy of massive success in terms of market shares. Cadbury was founded by John Cadbury who started small, selling hops, tea, coffee, mustard, as well as cocoa and chocolate. This is, technically, where the company found its birth (Senker, n.d.). Cadbury took advantage of is flair for promotions and drew the sales of his company off over the roof which led to the opening of the factory in 1831. Soon after, in 1842, Cadbury was selling sixteen lines of cocoa. Here, the competence of John Cadbury especially in marketing plays out. His success is mostly attributed to that fact. To ensure his products were consistent with health standards, he decided to add some substances to during the making of his products. For instance, he balanced drinking chocolate and cocoa with sago flour and potato starch with the view of countering the high levels of cocoa butter content. The reduction of tax on imported cocoa beans was introduced by Prime Minister Gladstone and which ensured further growth of Cadbury.
Being a member of Quakers, a non-conformist religious group in Britain, Cadburys aim of doing business was far much beyond making money (Senker, n.d.). He wanted to achieve among other things, reduction of poverty, tackling injustice as well as improving the working conditions of workers. Upon retirement, Cadburys sons, Richard and George, extended his ideas in through the company. Among the most notable things, the Cadbury brothers can be credited with is moving the factory from Birmingham to Bourneville with the aim of creating a factory within the garden. Also, they significantly improved the working conditions in the factory by introducing the five and a half day working week, providing medical an...
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