Organizations growth of flexibility in its activities from decision making to communication thus removal of repeated management functions.
The growth of overreliance on systems and applications which is a threat, since upon breakdown of such systems the entire organization can come to a standstill.
The mobility of existing natural conditions for example location. In that, the use of gadgets such as smartphones which are interconnected via communication network will facilitate easier exchange of information unlike before.
Explain the difference between hardware and software. Provide two examples of each.
Hardware- physical devices that are used within computer machines. E.g., mouse, monitor
Software- a collection of language/programming code into programs installed into computer devices to run operations of a computer.
What sorts of operating systems are used in the following devices that you own? Diagram (list) the hardware/software "layer cake" for these devices.
On your personal computer?
Operating system Microsoft Windows
Hardware mouse, keyboard, battery
Software- MS Windows, MS Word, MS PowerPoint
Your mobile phone?
Operating system android
Hardware- speaker, buttons, touchscreen
Software- Whatsapp, Instagram, messenger
What is application software? What are the categories of application software that are available? Provide brief descriptions for each category and three examples for each category.
Application software- software/ program that enables a user to complete tasks or process, for example, sending emails.
Word processing software- Notepad, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint
Multi-media software- VLC player, Media player, Virtual DJ.
Database software- MS access, Oracle, My SQL.
Spreadsheet software- Open office, Google Docs, MS Excel
What activities should a firm undertake to create and support its information systems? What does a total cost of ownership refer to? What is its significance in a managerial context?
Provision of funds
Constant upgrade to changing trends.
Focusing on people who ran and interact with it for proper integration.
The total cost of ownership- it's an estimating calculation that brings out the expenses and benefits both direct and indirect of purchase of a product/ system.
Its significance is that it brings out the value of a component/ product for the long-term thinking thus no complete focus on single buying price as is the case in many scenarios but also its operation and maintenance costs in the future.
List at least five reasons for the failure of technology development projects. How might you as a manager combat these reasons to ensure the success of the technology development project?
Poor leadership & accountability- hiring of competent/ integral project managers alongside their team members.
Poor planning & timelines- come up with project plans that correspond to existing business trends, company objectives, and end-user needs. Also, come up with objective timelines that are easy to meet and affordable.
Communication gaps- set-up appropriate communication channels for sending messages and feedback between executive managers, project managers, and end-users.
The assumption of feedback from end-users- listens to customer's feedback and come up with solutions for need raised so that your project meets their demands.
Lack of target to meet- come up with defined outcomes that will act as a guide for your project.
What are three major trends (Chapter 14) that are reshaping how we think about software? What industries and firms are potentially impacted by these changes?
Hacking- banking firms, service providers in different sectors and government agencies are the most impacted by these.
Competition- has led to increased creativity in software developments. Software developers are the most impacted.
Development of intellectual property rights- Software developers are the most impacted.
Why do managers, investors, and technology buyers care about these changes?
They affect their current operations regarding production and provide a good ground for a forecast on whether changes will be needed in their products.
Why do firms prefer to use open source software products over conventional software?
Open source software is free for modification and uses to anyone thus permitting sharing and promotion of collaboration among many users.
Describe how OSS provides a firm with scalability. What does this mean, and why does this appeal to a firm?
OSS is free for modification & use by anyone this promotes scalability within firms since its scale of employees can use it for firms operations and modify it in regards to the companys needs.
What issues might a firm face if chosen systems arent scalable?
Slower communication regarding sharing of information due to the constraint of inhibiting sharing between firm's software.
List some of the risks correlated with using OSS.
Lack of security- the software's code is open; any opportunist can identify and exploit the program through hacking and development of viruses.
Strict compulsory adherence to rules- to avoid copyright infringement, OSS is guided by strict rules which may get one sued.
Give examples of firms that might pass on OSS software, and explain why.
Banks- OSS offers a low level of security risks that can't be taken while managing people's fund.
Data providing companies, e.g., Vodacom- their data operations require a very high level of security to meet demands for end-users.
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