What are the significant differences between the organizational model of decision making and the process model?
The process model is different from the organizational model, and their differences are quite significant. To start with, the process model entails a planning model which is not yet ostensible in an organizational model which has a neoclassical way of working towards decision making. The process model also aims at the future and quick growth. On the other hand, the organizational model has majored on growth quick changes while making decisions when it becomes clear that challenges are being encountered while implementing. There is a strategic orientation in the process model while the organizational model deems engrossed by adjustments that are short-term and can meet an attainable objective. It seems like the organizational model is made by the policy and procedure or constructed by a recognized process of choice business. On the contrary, with the long-term horizon of the process model, the model is still designed in a way it can accommodate the inventive qualities that will always characterize the decisions of category II. The procedure and policies in organizational model seem to be an end, but not a means while the process model which has the procedure, policies and managerial emphasis which are viewed properly as the guide of the means but not as the ends themselves.
What are the significant similarities between the rational model of decision-making and the organizational model?
Organizational model is however similar to the rational model. That comes in because they both are oriented to the immediate results and a short-term horizon. The desire for a maximized outcome necessitates a short-range perspective in the rational model. The organizational model also seems to be concerned with rather the immediate results. In conclusion, it has been observed that both the rational and organizational models operate within some discernible constraints and are both structure processes.
In what specific ways is the process model different from the other models of decision-making?
The process model, however, is very distinct from the other decision-making models in very specific ways. The difference comes in because of the eclectic nature that it possesses. Thus it gets help from the other model by deriving some part of its nomenclature from them. After that, there is a combination of the eclectic qualities with an intrinsic characteristic that is in the process model that later end up being the archetype of the interdisciplinary decision making.
What are decision-making models particularly useful to illustrate the interdisciplinary aspects of decision-making?
The main decision-making models that are more useful in illustration of the interdisciplinary aspects used in decision making are the process model and the organizational model. Despite the two models having some differences on how they work, they still help one make the right decision. The organizational model is also called the structure model. Whichever model an organization decides to use, a model is always driven by the goals of an organization and serves as the background on which business is done and where the process operates on. Moreover, the most ideal model to be used in decision making in an organization, depending on the business nature and the challenges it has been facing.
Discuss the following statement: the philosophy of the decision maker pervades the process of choice.
The term ethics can denote the values application on the process of decision making, and these ethics are known as "standards for decision making." Studies show that any decision that is made is as a result of an unaffected process by an ethical interest. Value and ethics have a role in the process of decision making. These roles are however straightforward, and they include:
The most significant factors that are used in the process of choice itself are ethical considerations of that time and the decision makers values.
During the control stage and follow up of the process of making a decision, there must be avoidance of value judgments so that the correct action must be taken to ensure that the choice implemented will have a result that is compatible with the main objective.
What are some of the basic assumptions of economics and statistics about the decision-making process?
The underlying assumptions that economics and statistics have regarding the process of decision making are:
The decision maker has a fixed objective.
The decision maker can marshal most (if not all) of the alternatives that are relevant to the decision at hand.
The alternatives can all be quantified to some extent.
The decision makers disregard the variables that are not quantifiable.
The decision maker simply chooses the alternative that, as indicated numerically, promises to maximize his or her objective.
What are some of the techniques employed by groups to minimize and avoid disabling conflict and dissent?
There are some techniques that are used by the groups to enable them to minimize and escape dissent and conflict. These are:
Objectives, as the group establishes, there should be observations of social and personal goals of the participants that are modified to avoid dissent and conflict but reach consensus.
When a group ranks the objectives of an organization, the ranking reveals the participants values and the stated criteria imposed by the interests represented in the group as they perceive the preferred outcomes.
Alternatives development is sometimes difficult for the groups that are formed for decision making. That is true since the search for alternatives requires effective communication and the ability to evaluate alternatives. At this point in the process of decision making the participants must have good information, and they must know what to do with it if the best decisions are to come forth in the later stages.
The point of evaluating alternatives and choosing the one most likely to yield the original objective frequently involve conflict that can be well reduced by establishing decision rules early.
Finally, to the extent that the group formed to make a decision also becomes responsible for implementing the choice and following it up to make sure there is a control of the outcome. The process of decision-making will then be continuous and complete.
Discuss the following statement: The decision-making process provides a useful framework for the effective fusion of the behavioral and the quantitative aspects of decision making.
The process of decision making can provide a useful framework that will ensure effective fusion of the quantitative and behavioral aspects used in decision making. Inside that structure of the decision-making process, the managerial decision makers can perceive the likely effects of choices before they are made and predict the probable effects of outcomes on objectives. The decision-making process offers the managerial decision maker a usable and understandable framework to perform the process as supposed. Within this framework, the decision maker can meaningfully blend behavioral and quantitative variables in pursuit of outcomes that will help fulfill organizational purposes.
9. Discuss the following statement: The rational model of decision making is not well suited for category II decisions.
The rational model used in decision making is not fit for decisions of category II. That is because it assumes there are two key principals that a decision maker must fulfill. Those requirements are the transitivity axiom and closure axiom. The closure and transitivity axioms will not all the time embrace the choice for a human. Therefore, they make up a faulty assumption from the rational model that is used in decision making. Obviously, that closure axiom may not apply to decisions characterized by uncertainty, such as category II decisions. The transitivity axiom is concerned with logical consistency rather than the content of choice. Hence, it is of limited usefulness in dealing with the many dimensions of category II decisions.
10. Why is it important for students and practicing managers to understand that decision making is eclectic in nature?
There is the importance of the students and the managers in practice to know that making a decision is naturally eclectic. First, eclectic means that, Selecting what appears to be best in various doctrines, or styles." Second, the reason for the importance students and practicing managers to understand that decision making is eclectic in nature is because the process of making a decision seems complicated bearing in mind that different decisions are applied in different disciplines. The students who engage in decision making should understand that there are no specific procedures used in determining how much discipline will apply in a certain decision nor the weight that should be given to discipline by a decision maker.
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