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Nursing Theorists and Their Work - Paper Example

5 pages
1130 words
University of Richmond
Type of paper: 
Article review
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#1.Review of Modern Nursing

Every profession at least traces from a point. Nursing as one of the major profession has massive roots and close associations from one Florence Nightingale whose works received many commendations from several quarters. Born on May 12 1820, in Florence Italy, Nightingale was one of the luckiest girls at the time to find a father who valued education. She received her training in a more broad way than other girls did of her time (Alligood, 2014). Among some of the few selected subjects being mathematics, which was rarely taken by women, however, she was lucky to receive tutorials from the most excellent mathematicians of that time. After realizing that she had a calling to the profession of becoming a nurse, she completed her nursing training in 1851 at Kaiserwerth in Germany. She first got her employment in England charged with the responsibility of examining the hospital facilities, reformatories, and charitable institutions.

The nursing profession is caring for another person who is in a distressing situation. This is precisely the definition of a nurse according to Nightingale. In most cases, she wanted to be of service to the ailing- patients- as she referred to them. It is in the wake of the Crimean war that the nursing services needed to the soldiers and Nightingale due to her outstanding performance was requested by Sidney Herbert to relocate to Scutari turkey (Alligood, 2014). With a group of nurses, Nightingale arrived at Scutari where they found the conditions of many soldiers as deteriorating. The environment was full of filth, with poor sanitation and contaminated water. The soldiers were suffering from frostbite and opportunistic diseases. Some of the major reasons as to why Nightingale was considered the founder of modern, she devoted herself to the development of nursing as a vocation both in local and international level attempting to foster environmental improvement as well as trying to create social change.

#2 Metaparadigms of Nursing

Nursing Metaparadigms are however seen to be oscillating around four main subjective areas:

The Nursing these are the necessary knowledge and skills that are deemed paramount in practicing best care. They include medical knowledge, technical skills, compassion, empathy, pharmaceutical skills, and healing. These vital paradigms foster insight into the process of practicing best nursing. The ultimate goal of all the metaparadigms is to provide the needed help to the patient at the centre of such requirements.

Environment-The environment in essence refers to the surrounding that the patient is placed, it has the patient ability of healing or responding positively to recover. It can affect either negatively or positively on the illness process. With great consideration given to external factors, there is a need for dynamism in dealing with the environment to foster or initiate a healing process. Therefore, a nurse should try making an environment that will improve the patients condition disregarding the physical location.

Person Paradigm-This refers to the patient and the support system they are exposed to at the time of healing. The support systems are the friends, and family members who play a critical role in ensuring the best care are provided to the patient. It is essential that the patient view as a person rather than a disease process or illness. Therefore, the care plan is the central point that determines to heal the patient. A patient treated with compassion is likely to recover quickly that who finds less or no sympathy from the family members and friends.

Health-This is the overall wellness of a patient as well as the ability to access care. Health has a few determinants that are likely to make an individual prone to a specific type of illness or not. For instance, genetic and emotional factors are key determinants. It is essential that the physical health of the patient be coupled with other metaparadims within the care process.

#3 Personal Perspective Based on Watsons View on Nursing

Watson just like Nightingale was one of the people who injected life into the nursing profession to make it what it is today. Born and brought up in the small town of Welch in West Virginia, Watson attended one of the high schools in the hometown of Virginia and then proceeded to the Lewis School of Nursing. Having graduated and subsequently entering the field of nursing, her, and the colleagues began the centre for human caring which concur with the dram of Nightingale (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). This became the first interdisciplinary centre, which was committed to testing the use of caring human knowledge for clinical practices. Later, Watson and her colleagues became sponsors to clinical, educational as well as community scholarships and leadership, which is the core principle that anchors nursing profession to date. By all standards, Watson stood for development in this sector. Having acquired all that describes the best nursing profession, one of her cooperation led to the beginning of post-baccalaureate nursing curriculum within the spheres of human care (Chinn & Kramer, 2013). The program thus begot nursing doctorate (ND) which was later to become a professional doctorate in 2005. She nonetheless became so active that in many cases, she started several programs and is the founder to most nursing boards, for instance, the board of Boulder county hospice in addition to several other cooperati9ons with area healthcare facilities.

Watson engaged in numerous publications regarding the state of nursing. In her second book titled nursing: the human science and care, a theory of nursing are well articulated in the book that gained the philosophical and conceptual problems in nursing (George, 2011). Due to a lot of insight into the nursing profession that the book contains, it has witnessed a lot of translation in Chinese, Germany, Japanese, as well as other languages. At the time of publishing the third book, which shed more light on the plight of the career, she articulated the conditions as well as the remedies to be taken into consideration in the twenty-first century. Titled postmodern nursing and beyond, Watson describes two personal but life-altering events that made her do the writing George, J. B. (2011). The accidental injury she experienced which resulted in her losing one of her eyes and that, which made her lose her husband. Her works have been branded as a philosophy, paradigm, blueprint, and theories that expound on the fundamental principles of moored nursing as well as ways of modernizing the profession through a worldview. One of her milestone views is her emphasis on the interpersonal as well as transpersonal qualities of empathy, warmth and empathy to the view of Carl Rodgers assertions on nursing.


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theorists and their work. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (2013). Integrated theory and knowledge development in nursing. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

George, J. B. (2011). Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Nursing Practice, 6/e. Pearson Education India.


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