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Literature Review: E-commerce Landscape. Dissertation Example.

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Harvey Mudd College
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In every single significant market over the previous decade, online offers of jewellery have developed at double-digit rates. In the United Kingdom, for example, online deals now represent 14 percent of aggregate jewel sales, up from around 1 percent in 2003 (Rathore, Vijaya, and Sahara, 2013). In a similar fashion, the jewellery e-commerce market has expanded all across the world. Online jewellery sales are about 4 to 5 percent of the market today, with considerable varieties crosswise over areas, brands, and different kinds of gems (Standing, 2009). The e-commerce sector is poised for major growth but critics argue that the sector might not grow beyond a certain period because most buyers want to purchase costly things from physical stores, which are seen as more solid and which give the chance to touch and feel the stocka vital factor in a high-association class driven by tactile experience (Rathore, Vijaya, and Sahara, 2013).

The central part of these deals will originate from reasonable marked gems, and to some degree institutionalized item fragment, in which purchasers know precisely what they are getting (Kaur and Ramneet, 2012b). Gem producers can utilize computerized media as a platform for passing on data, forming a brand personality, and building client connections (India Boarding Report, 2013). As indicated by a current McKinsey study, 66% of luxury customers say they participate in online research preceding an in-store buy; one-to 66% say they much of the time swing to web-based social networking for data and exhortation (Okwonkwo and Uche, 2007). The disconnected scene is additionally advancing. In attire, mono-brand stores have been making progress to the detriment of mail-arrange players and some multi-brand boutiques; retail chain deals are stagnating (Sharma et al., Un). The same is occurring in gems. Pandora, for instance, quadrupled the extent of its store organize in only four yearsfrom 200 areas in 2009 to more than 800 out of 2012 (Report L.S., 2010), and in 1990, there were only 2 Swarovski boutiques; by 2012, there were 860.

Online jewellery business in AsiaBrands that are reluctant to adopt e-commerce are placing themselves at a risk of losing the jewellery market in Asia (Srinivas, 2013). Changes in the markets have led to a shift in focus to online based selling. To keep up with this trend and to ensure massive returns, businesses need to conform to prevent losing to those that have shifted to online marketing. The American and European markets cannot sustain jewellery companies; thus, these companies are moving towards developing economies like China and India. These organizations are making overhauls to procedures to adjust to new customer shopping practices by having a colossal multi-channel approach, and considering to offer customers more than one channel for purchasing, thus driving more sales (Srinivas, 2013).

There are huge open doors for international brands in Asia, and this e-commerce showcase can take care of the popularity of rich Asian purchasers (Standing, 2009). Asia is encountering quick populace development, with an extended urban focus, and quick budgetary change of working class who are by and by ascending as Asias advantaged as the overall population shifts focus from creation to utilization (Wiedmann, 2009).

In Asia, bringing down costs joined with positive full-scale monetary elements including the rapidly rising white-collar class, more prominent extra cash, creating urban populaces, and indulgent government impediments on gold purchasing sets new records for gems, bar and coin request (Wiedmann, 209).

Jewels in the Asian market

Jewellery can be classified into three fundamental classifications: Metal, valuable stones and others (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006).

Metal adornments: refers to jewellery produced using a wide range of metals, which can additionally be isolated into; Valuable metal adornments which is jwellery produced using valuable metals, for example, gold, platinum, and silver. Basic jewels include platinum adornments, gold gems, silver gems and compound (carat gold) gems (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006). And non-valuable metal jewels: By correlation with valuable metal gems, gems produced using non-valuable metals offers better an incentive for cash. Usually, these sorts of gems are produced using copper and aluminum.

Imitation valuable metal gems: This alludes to gems produced using materials which look to some extent like valuable metals in appearance. Indeed, these sort of gems does not contain any valuable metals, but rather have accomplished a huge level of prominence since they can offer certain points of interest i.e. strikingly colorfastness, less expensive costs and a high enlivening quality (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006).

Thin film jewels: These types of gems are made utilizing extraordinary systems to bond a layer of valuable metal immovably on the surface of another, less expensive material. Cases of this are gold-plated, gold-overlaid and produced gold gems (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006).

Valuable stone jewels: Precious stones are made into decorations utilizing an assortment of procedures, including pounding, cutting, trimming and hanging. Because of its stylish esteem and intrinsic class, valuable stone adornments are ending up being progressively well known. Regular valuable stone writers incorporate jewels, rubies, sapphires, precious stone, jade, pearls, golden and topaz (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006).

Others: Jewellery produced using materials other than metals and valuable stones. These can incorporate materials, for example, mud, wood, string, calfskin, and ivory (Chadha, Radha and Paul, 2006).

Classes of jewellery in AsiaPlatinum jewels: China is one of the world's biggest buyer markets for platinum gems. As per sources inside the gold exchange, in 2016 retail offers of platinum gems in China dropped by 3-20% (Standing, 2009). One critical factor in the waning interest for platinum is that customers now want to purchase gold.

Gold jewels: as of late, gold gems makers have started to move far from customary, homogenous plans and, rather, have hoped to coordinate with different materials (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006). Thus, an ever-increasing number of youngsters are starting to support this style. In parallel with the dreary general shopper showcase, the utilization of gold jewels has fallen. Notwithstanding, interest in physical gold has stayed alive, with gold bar and gold coin utilization rising essentially, showing an aggregate development of just about 30%. Over the long haul, there is as yet an unmistakable potential for development in the utilization of gold jewels inside the Chinese market (Emmanuel et al., 2000). This will be driven by various elements, such as an increment in upscale utilization, higher quantities of relational unions and births and the pattern for purchasing gold as a fence against expansion (Ahya, 2013).

Precious stone jewels: According to the White Paper on China's Cultural Consumption Market in 2016-2017 (Jewellery and Wrist Watch Section) Diamond Index Report, China's market interest for precious stones is presently estimated at around RMB62 billion a year. What's more, it has been predicted that, throughout the following five years, demand will keep on growing at a rate of 5-10% (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006).

Made-to-order jewels: According to the current industry overview, precious stone wedding bands represent 75% of the total demand for jewels by the post-90s ages living in the first-and second-level Chinese urban areas, for example, Beijing, Shenzhen, Shanghai, and Chengdu (Cathdra, 2017). As of late, the customary items on display in form of completed jewels has neglected to take care of the developing purchaser demand for selectiveness and distinction. As many such companies are coming up with their own customized jewels to meet cover this niche.

The jewellery market in AsiaThe wedding market: Of the aggregate volume of buyer gems deals in China, it is evaluated that over half of are identified with weddings. The less built up the city, (for example, second-or third-level), the higher the offer (Dubey, 2012). In 2016, there were 11.328 million recently married couples in China (Boroian, Michael, and Poix, 2009). In the coming couple of years, this pattern will be kept up, with more than 10 million couples getting hitched each year. Since jewels are viewed as fundamental segments of conventional Chinese weddings, the market is certain to profit judging by these statistics.

Celebration showcase: The demand of gem deals in the territory is especially boosted by celebrations and commemorations. Many individuals have a propensity for purchasing jewels as a present to commend birthday celebrations and other occasions, particularly the New Year and Valentine's Day (W. Hennings, 2007).

Men's market: While the customary ladies' market is furiously aggressive, the male gems showcase is still at the beginning of its advancement according to a study on luxury goods worldwide by Bain and Company in 2013. Apart from the usual jewels such as rings, the men's market additionally incorporates exclusively manly items like tie clasps, sleeve fasteners, and belt clasps. The enthusiasm of male shoppers in jewellery stems primarily from their desire for precious stones. As per one industry report, among Chinese men in the 30-44 age bracket, 67% wish to have precious jewels. In contrast to the overall demand for jewellery, the masculine jewellery sector is growing quite slowly (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006).

Junior market: according to the Asian traditions. Jewels are left to the younger ones in the family as a sign of goodwill from parents and the elderly. In the Chinese culture, people give lockets, arm ornaments, and accessories to youngsters as tokens and as a gesture of wishing them a successful life (Hundekari, 2012). The junior jewel divisions are however less advertised and sold compared to the adult division of jewels. This is because the value placed on jewels by grownups is more than the one placed on jewellery for the younger generations (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006).

Senior market: The senior market is a luxury category on its own. It features people who are past spending money on conventional jewellery like rings and other accessories. The demand in this bracket features luxury rubies, sapphire, and jade which are associated with graceful aging (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006). They give jewellery sentimental value creating a big niche in the jewellery market (McKinsey, 2011). However, the sector is not as widely promoted compared to the fast-moving jewellery for the middle-aged techno-savvy clientele due to insufficient attention (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006).

Luxury jewels e-commerce in China

China is presently the second greatest world economy by GDP, following the United States and driving from Japan and Germany (McKinsey, 2011). It is in like, the world's second-biggest retail exhibit, and is probably going to outperform the U.S. by the end of 2017. Demand for gems in China is experiencing advancement consistently, and between 2005 and 2012, closed sales grew by 224%. More noteworthy, China (considering Macau and Hong Kong) is as of now the world's second greatest client of luxury items (Chadha, Radha, and Paul, 2006). As indicated by report distributed by Polygon, a dynamic online group and exchanging system for qualified pearl and adornments specialists, Jewellery is likewise the third greatest venture classification in China, behind land and cars (Millward Brown report. 2013).

While for a couple of brands it might have all the earmarks of being odd for a luxury brand to put a retail store on a messenger application. WeChat, claimed by Chinese web goliath Tencent as "the most vital selling platform for luxury brands", is a great way to expose a co...

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