The article discusses the relationship between intrasexual competition and height in different age groups that is the adults and adolescents. The paper also gives the impacts it has on different relations. According to the article, height is a significant component that contributes to intrasexual completion between same sexes as well as intersexual completion between opposite sex. The report shows tall men are view as strong and capable of protection as compared to their fellow men that are shorter. Height in men can lead to competition in various ways such as in attracting the opposite sex and in reproduction. The tall men attract more women than those who are shorter. Their height gives them more advantage when it comes to finding a mate as they are perceived to be sturdy and attractive to the female gender. The taller and the shorter men, on the other hand, are not very competitive in both the intersexual and intersexual competition since they are believed to have specific medical issues. Due to that reason, they do not attract the opposite sex very much for the fear that when you reproduce with them, the offspring are likely to have the same medical problems. Since they are also considered to be weak as compared to the tall fellows, there is that perception that they cannot offer much protection. The tall men, therefore, have numerous advantages in both the intersexual and intrasexual competition. Their fellow men can envy them in many ways. They are completion when it comes to attracting a mate than the others. The research done on the topic showed that the completion in the intrasexual is much higher among the male adolescents than among the adults. The young male with height is more intrasexual competitive with their peers.
The intrasexual competition among females is also discussed in the article. Women have intrasexual competition among them, but they are not as aggressive as the male counterparts. They compete in attracting and retaining the best mates. They do not engage in a physical confrontation as the male could do since it can result in physical damage and high cost for fitness. Therefore, they engage in competitor derogation as a way of competition to acquire a mate among them. That method is more of a subtle mechanism than of physical confrontation. There is a significant difference between the sexes on the parental investments where women invest more and but have a lower reproductive rate than men which increases the intrasexual competition among men. The height issue among women is a little different as many women prefer to have a mate that is taller than them which chooses a mate to depend on their height. Their mate just has to be taller than them and not necessarily be on the average tallness among his male fellows. Women tend to focus more on their attractiveness and not the height in attracting a mate. That means they compete more on the physical beauty among them. The differences in aggression, as well as the height among the sexes, are believed to arise as consequences in the intensity of the intrasexual competition. According to the present research done on the topic also shows that the intrasexual competition among the female adolescents is higher compared to that of the adults.
Evolutionary Effect on the Embodied Beauty of Landscape Architectures
The article is based on the research done based on the effects of evolution on the embodied beauty of the landscape architectures. According to the paper, the sense of beauty is described to be associated with environmental adaptation as well as agility of human beings based on the framework of the evolutionary aesthetics. The sense of beauty as defined based on the ecological adaptation and the human beings` plasticity both has a biological foundation and adaptive value. According to the previous studies done on the topic, show that organisms obtain benefits from the landscape. The report entails the experiment that was done to determine the whether or not the benefits that are received from the landscape could draw out a sense of beauty that is stronger. The study was as well meant to investigate what was the nature of that sense of beauty. The experiment was done was done with a viewing of classical landscape and non-landscape architectural photographs. According to the author, aesthetic preference, as well as perception, are considered to be one of the developing behaviors of environmental adaptation since they have biological groundings and are viewed as conducive to reproduction and human survival. It is suggested that people may have an innate preference of a landscape for an instant the savanna that was used in the article as an example. The researchers provided evidence to support they hypothesized based on the innate preference of savanna which was confirmed by the younger generation by preferring a photograph of savanna than that of other biomes. That finding is doubted by researchers based on other findings on an experiment done by other students of similar age on other landscapes in comparison to savanna. That leads them to assume that maybe a preference for the environment could be a cumulative process and might change during human`s life cycle. The argument for innate preference may be considered weak but based on some features that are essential for human reproduction and survival such as green vegetation, and clean water can make such aesthetic perception and preference more convincing. According to other numerous studies, people could obtain benefits from a natural environment that contain healthy plants and water regarding positive emotional experience, cognitive processing, social interaction as well as psychological health. It is stated in the resent findings that beauty could be personified and represented as an absolute experience or mental stimulation. The argument was supported by other pieces of evidence that entailed human drawings while dancing was more preferred as compared to those that they were in a static motion that effect was due to the simulation of movement. The movement elicited human quality and recurring situational experience. The finding in the neurological studies discovered that the artistic evaluation of visual stimulation naturally brought out activation of motor-related areas. According to the findings of the research, it was recommended that aesthetic judgment or perception could be associated with the generation of personified simulation of action and hat approaching motivation of beauty. In the present studies done, it was discovered that there is no significant difference between no landscape architecture and landscape architecture photographs based on the ratings of aesthetic feelings scores.
Cultural fit of emotions and health implications: A psychosocial resources model
The article is about the relationship between cultural norms about emotions, psychology, and health. The author explains that there is a connection between cultural practice and emotions. The way in which emotions are perceived and processed are different based on the diverse cultural practices. Some cultural values and traditions determine social relation which is different depending on the community. Processing and expressing emotions vary depending on the community`s cultural values and norms. According to the article, the research was done based on the analysis of emotional perception between Western cultures and East Asia cultures. In the Western cultures, people are encouraged to process their emotions openly as well as express them. Outer showing of emotions is something personal and independent and perceived as something ordinary and right based on their cultural behaviors and practice. Some expression of feelings is considered to be right in some culture while they are wrong in other cultures. In the East Asia culture, the outer appearance is against their culture. People are expected to suppress their emotions for the better of the community. The culture based on emotional expression is interdependent where an individual has to think of community at large if the expression of emotion will cause conflict. In the Western Culture, positive emotions are good and encouraged in the community while in East Asia; negative emotions are perceived as good and encouraged. The Asians believe that positive feeling can cause reluctance is somebody`s performance while negative emotions will inspire someone to work harder.
Adhering to cultural norms and practices leads to emotional balance which in return is believed to result in good health. Following the cultural traditions is also related to the psychological state of an individual's mind. Cultural values influence the rational response of an individual, for instance, the mind knows what an acceptable and unacceptable behavior based on their cultural norms is. A person who is in the right psychological frame of mind is believed to have good health. Cultural fit of emotion is when the pattern of an individual`s feeling is in concurrence with the emotional models that are preferred in their given cultural context. Cultural fit of a person and the social approval patterns have been related to various psychological constructions such as identity, goals, values, and personality with consideration to the adaptive outcome. On the other hand, the cultural fit of emotion can be relevant to health since it coordinates behavioral, motivational, and psychological patterns that impact the downstream health outcome. Studies have shown the relation and involvement between the emotions and the biological mechanism associated with a health outcome. The study has come up with models that can be followed or used shortly in the study between the relation of culture, emotions, and health. It is known as the psychological model. There are the cultural psychology and health psychology. The model is based on how cultural emotion patterns based on the psychological resources can result in a good health outcome. It goes deeper in the connection between emotional pathways that are connected with the health outcome.
Exploring the Great Schism in the Social Sciences: Confirmation Bias and the Interpretation of Results Relating to Biological Influences on Human Behavior and Psychology
The article is based on the on-going debate between social and biological scientist concerning the role of biological influence in the growth of behavioral as well as psychological traits. The biologists normally dismiss the Nature-nurture argument as a false division since all phenotypic characteristics are as a result of compound processes of environmental interactions and gene. According to the article, many people have suggested that the debate is as a result of ideological driven biases in the analysis of the results. The ones that support biological methods are accused of having the willingness to welcome the biological explanations so that they can rationalize and justify the status quo of disparity. However, those that are against the biological methods are accused of possessing the unwillingness to agree to the biological explanations so that they can point inequality exclusively to institutional as well as social factors that eventually welcome the possibility of social equality. Social scientists that are biologically orientated tend to follow many theories and, methods that are from animal literature. The human study suggests that they have similar features while the explanation appealing to the biological pathways are always less acceptable for the human character than that of the animal character. That only explains that humans display an exceptional level of behavioral flexibility that is motivated by distinctively essential capabilities of fluid reasoning as well as social learning such as culture. That has resulted in the...
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