The Gardner effectively establishes his purposes in his book the theory of multiple intelligence by differentiating intelligence into specific modalities rather than viewing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. According to him, intelligence must meet the obligation of eight criteria (potential for brain isolation by brain damage, place in evolutionary history etc.) of which he proposed the same number of abilities (musical rhythmic, visual special, interpersonal etc.) as criteria that must be met. Secondly, he opposes the idea of identifying learners to a given specific intelligence.
The Gardner indicates who is included in his primary audience by describing his criteria and formulating a list seven intelligence with which some are associated with schools, arts, and personal intelligence. For example in linguistic intelligence which involves quick response in spoken and written languages and learns about them and finally use them to accomplish certain objectives, the Gardner sees writers, poet, lawyers, speakers as having a high linguistic intelligence. In Spatial intelligence, it involves the ability to identify and use pattern of wide space and more confined areas.
In musical intelligence involves the skills in the composition performance and appreciating the musical pattern composing musical pitches, tones, and rhythm. Of which according to Gardner he sees it running parallel to linguistic intelligence. Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence, interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the ability to get understand the general intentions, motivation, and wishes of other people. The audience, in this case, are educators, sells persons and the leaders. On the other hand, intrapersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand oneself, feelings and fears .this is viewed to be having an to the significant working model of ourselves and uses the regulation to regulate lives.
The rhetorical modes pathos, logos, and ethos are persuasion modes that are used to convince audiences, the Gardner urges teachers that they should structure the presentation of materials in given style which would engage a number of intelligence. For example, when lecturing about revolutionary war, a teacher can play war songs or show the student battle maps and even have student read novels based on life at that given time this will make the students excited about learning.
Based on the Gardner view, learning or teaching of a particular person should focus on his or her particular intelligence. For instance, in the case where one has strong spatial or musical intelligence, they should be encouraged to enhance these abilities. He also illustrates the cultural context of multiple intelligence e.g. he talks about the high spatial ability of the puluwat people of the Caroline islands who are using the given skills to sail through with their canoes through the ocean.
There are key questions that raise concerns positively and negatively and some assumptions have also been made. For example, it is not clear the criteria employed by Gardner are adequate since he himself has admitted that there is an element of subjective judgment raised.
Finally, the writers ideas are much significant to the number of educators to analyze their work and look beyond the dominant discord of skilling and testing.
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