Climate change has led to weather unpredictability which has caused a significant food distribution problem in many developing and the developed countries. Climate change has led to change in seasons which has reduced the ability of farmers to rely on rains while on other areas it has increased the amount of rain which leads to the destruction of crops through floods. Food distribution is a significant global health problem that reduces the health of many people due to lack of access to balanced diets (Raiten & Aimone, 2017). Global health is significantly affected when the populations are unable to access enough food which provides vital vitamins and nutrients that protects the body from diseases. The food distribution problem due to climate change has significantly increased spending on healthcare as many people, and populations lack essential nutrients for good health sustainability which increases the opportunistic diseases (Harison, Mark, & Imwati, 2017). Global climate change is caused by environmental detrimental activities that are on the increase due to industrialization which has led to the over-consumption of natural resources as well as the increased release of carbon dioxide from industries (Myers et al., 2017).
On the other hand, respiratory problems are on the rise due to pollution of the air as well as the imbalance in the air properties as a result of depletion of forests and desertification which is caused by human activities as well as the change in weather conditions. The ozone temperatures are on the rise which directly aggravates respiratory diseases as well as increasing the exposure of people to respiratory diseases factors (Laureate Education. 2010). Climate change has led to the increases in the number of allergens produced by plants in the air which increases the risk of respiratory allergic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There is an overwhelming increase in temperature which has led to heat waves which pose a significant respiratory problem and has caused numerous deaths in respiration complications cases. Drastic climatic changes due to climate change have in the recent years increased respiratory morbidity and mortality especially amongst adult patients (Wilson et al., 2017).
Comparison between the United States of America and Kenya
Food distribution is a significant problem that has been made worse in sub-Saharan Africa such as Kenya compared to the United States of America which has enough resources to mitigate food distribution problems (Akombi et al., 2017). In Kenya, climate change has made food security a significant problem which has led to the malnutrition of millions of people especially the nomadic pastoralists and people living in dry areas in the northern parts of the country (Chitima et al., 2017). On the other hand, the United States of America has enough resources to invest in irrigation projects as well as the development of food varieties that can withstand and produce in poor weather. On the other hand, respiratory problems as a result of climate change are high in the United States compared to Kenya.
In September the rise in heat wave has increased respiratory morbidity and mortality in Midwestern and northeastern United States. Due to advanced healthcare and easy access to care in the United States, the number of people who succumb to respiratory complications is fewer compared to Kenya which has poor healthcare access. The lack of reliable data makes it possible to assess the real number of cases of people affected by respiratory problems as a result of the increase in temperatures due to climate change. In the United States, many people in 2017 have died due to heat especially in the urban centers compared to the rural areas. The high number of deaths due to respiratory complications is higher than deaths caused by other natural calamities in the United States (Rodden, 2017).
Health promotion and protection strategies that can be adopted by nurses
Mitigation of climate change and food distribution problem is every person responsibility while nurses can advance the reduction of respiratory complications. It is essential for nurses to promote good health in the community which improves the holistic well-being of the people affected by hunger and malnutrition due to climate change as well as respiratory problems caused by increased heat in the atmosphere (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2016).
Nurses have a responsibility of creating awareness of the need for the balanced diet in the midst of reduced food security. Nurses can educate the people on the available food products that can be used as alternative sources of nutrients for the people to reduce malnutrition that is caused by low crop production as a result of the unpredictable weather. Further, the nurses can educate the community on the need for proper ventilation in urban settlements as the number of heat .increases which is a significant cause of respiratory morbidity (Holtz, 2017).
Provision of responsive care
Nurses should be on the frontline in the provision of care to the people affected by hunger and malnutrition by offering vitamins to the children to improve their health and ability to overcome malnutrition. Nurses should provide care to the patients suffering from respiratory problems to ensure that they can breathe properly. Nurses should provide antihistamine medications to people experiencing allergic reactions which causes respiratory problems (Larson, 2016).
Reduced carbon dioxide emission
Nurses can reduce food distribution and respiratory morbidity and mortality by reducing the amount of carbon dioxide released in the air by embracing green solutions such as solar energy as well as the planting of trees in communities where they provide care to reduce desertification and restore forest cover (Veenema et al., 2016).
In conclusion, food distribution problem and respiratory complications can directly be linked to climate change. Unpredictable weather and harsh climatic conditions have led to desertification and reduced production of agriculture products which has reduced food security and increased cases of malnutrition, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. On the other hand, respiratory problems due to unpredictable heat wave continue to affect many people in America. Nurses should be on the frontline in the provision of nutrition education to the community as well as advocating for responsible community activities that will help reverse climate change.
Akombi, B. J., Agho, K. E., Merom, D., Renzaho, A. M., & Hall, J. J. (2017). Child malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys (2006-2016). PloS one, 12(5), e0177338.
Chitima, M., CoteStLaurent, A., Darkashalli, H., Giorgis, I., Isla, E., Lizarraga, A., ... & Goya, H. (2017). The case of Kenya: How can value chains be shaped to improve nutrition?.
Harison, K., Mark, B., & Imwati, A. (2017). Spatial Variability of Malnutrition and Predictions Based on Climate Change and Other Causal Factors: A Case Study of North Rift ASAL Counties of Kenya. J Earth Sci Clim Change, 8(416), 2.
Holtz, C. (2017). Global health care: Issues and policies (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett. (Chapter 14, Global Perspectives on Nutrition (pp. 381-414). Chapter 15, Global Perspectives on Environmental Health (pp. 419-439)
Laureate Education. (Producer). (2010a). Public and global health: Global emergencies and disasters [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Myers, S. S., Smith, M. R., Guth, S., Golden, C. D., Vaitla, B., Mueller, N. D., ... & Huybers, P. (2017). Climate change and global food systems: Potential impacts on food security and undernutrition. Annual review of public health, 38, 259-277.
Raiten, D. J., & Aimone, A. M. (2017). The intersection of climate/environment, food, nutrition, and health: crisis and opportunity. Current opinion in biotechnology, 44, 52-62.
Rodden, A, (2017). Dangerous heat wave scorches Southwestern US. Extreme Weather CNN. Retrieved from; http://edition.cnn.com/2017/06/16/us/weather-dangerous-heat-wave/index.htmlStanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2016). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Veenema, T. G., Griffin, A., Gable, A. R., MacIntyre, L., Simons, N., Couig, M. P., Larson, E. (2016). Nurses as leaders in disaster preparedness and responseA call to action. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 48(2), 187200.
Wilson, A., Reich, B. J., Nolte, C. G., Spero, T. L., Hubbell, B., & Rappold, A. G. (2017). Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at 2030 using spatially varying ozonetemperature risk surfaces. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 27(1), 118-124.
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