Essay on Altered Nutrition

2021-08-23 13:08:34
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Wesleyan University
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Essay
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Altered nutrition is the insufficient or excessive digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients. It is usually caused by an alteration in nutrients which can include a defect in genetics, ineffective intestinal mucosa, deficient or too much intake, and hypermetabolic state (Dudek, 2013 p577). The signs and symptoms of altered nutrition include loss and gain of weight, wasting and weakness of the muscles, dehydration, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and challenges in the healing of wounds (Nahikian-Nelms, 2016 p863).

According to the New England Journal of medicine (2017), altered nutrition, in particular, involves the condition of to failure to thrive in children, where the child has poor weight gain because of the insufficiency of calorie intake (Curran et al., 2017 p.1468). In most cases, this situation takes place when there is poor functioning in a childs body system which makes them use more than the required calories. Endocrine abnormalities as its named is an illness that has normal levels of carnitine and ammonia but lacks the metabolic derangement (Westlands et al., 2013 p. 262).

The article talks about a nineteen-year-old month girl who had the failure to thrive condition just after she was birth. Born from a healthy mother, the girls condition was excellent while in the womb. The girl was delivered normally, grew teeth healthily without pains and allergy, started walking at the age of 12 months and became active like other kids. However, while she was growing she never gained weight from nine months (Curran et al., 2017 p.1468).

In normal circumstance at 12 months old, the results of hemoglobin level, red-cell count, hematocrit and the red-cell indexes should appear normal (Hegerty & Khaw, 2015 p. 147). Here blood levels of album-min, proteins, total bilirubin, and free carnitine, etc. all appeared healthy. Six weeks later, the patient visited the nutritionist who designed a detailed meal plan to provide a high-kilocalorie and balanced diet (Thomas, 2016 p. 145). Two weeks later even after being given the meal plan and going to the hospital the child did not gain weight but had a healthy active life (Curran et al., 2017 p.1469).

Most children that have the failure to thrive condition have challenges in growth due to the insufficiency of calorie intake (Finlon et al., 2014 p. 188). In ideal situations, this disease is normally recognized by pediatricians during the primary care before the child is admitted to extensive research (Finlon et al., 2014 p. 192). When the child has difficulties in processing food, then they are said to have a motor or oral functioning, neurologic impairment, and cleft palate or detention issues (Nagappan & John, 2015 p. 55).

However, when the food is obstructed, it is usually caused by anatomical abnormalities such as esophageal webs, tonsillar hypertrophy, strictures or slings (Ibrarulla, 2014 p. 19). The overall results in the normal function of a childs body should have a good appetite, high levels of energy, weekly episodes of vomiting and a wasted body habitus after the linear growth is preserved (Nakane, 2013 p. 236). The poor weight gain of this child was caused by a condition known as the diencephalic or Russells syndrome (William, 2014 p. 967).

Conclusion

Altered nutrition as elaborated in the essay is a condition where the body has insufficient nutrients. In normal circumstances, this condition denies the body the ability to grow normally but in deficiency. One example as stated from the New England Journal of medicine is the condition of a 19-month girl who had Russells syndrome. Besides being born normal and grew just like other kids, the child did not gain weight. Even after several tests by different health professionals as well as the special meal plan, there was no change observed.

References

Curran, M. A., Madhavan, V. L., Caruso, P. A., Ebb, D. H., & Williams, E. A. (2017). Case 31-2017. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(15), 1468-1477. doi:10.1056/nejmcpc1706106

Dudek, S. G. (2013). Nutrition essentials for nursing practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. 573-664

Finlon, M. A., Drotar, D., Satola, J., Pallotta, J., Wyatt, B., & El-Amin, D. (2014). Home Observation of Parent-Child Transaction in Failure to Thrive: A Method and Preliminary Findings. New Directions for Failure to Thrive, 177-190. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-5095-8_12

Hazinski, M. F. (2013). Nursing care of the critically ill child. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby. 955-1140

Hegarty, V., & Khaw, K. T. (2015). Differential Effects of Haemoglobin Concentration, Red Blood Cell Count and Haematocrit on Blood Pressure. Age and Ageing, 24(Suppl 2), 144-174. doi:10.1093/ageing/24.suppl_2.p3-b

Ibrarullah, M. (2014). Chapter-02 Esophageal Webs, Rings and Strictures. Jaypee Gold Standard Mini Atlas Series Diagnostic Endoscopy, 15-28. doi:10.5005/jp/books/11456_2

Nagappan, N., & John, J. (2015). Oral hygiene and dental caries status among patients with cleft lip, cleft palate and cleft lip, alveolus and palate in Chennai, India. Journal of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies, 2(1), 49-62. doi:10.4103/2348-2125.150747

Nahikian-Nelms, M. (2016). Nutrition therapy and pathophysiology. Boston, MA, USA: Cengage Learning. 850-910

Nakane, E. (2013). Patients with Deceased Systolic Function Accompanied with Preserved Exercise Capacity Have Good Prognosis as Patients with Normal Systolic Function. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 19(10), 214-250. doi:10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.08.500

Thomas, J. E. (2016). Changing Lifestyles: The Effects of a Balanced Diet. A Balanced Diet? 143-168. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-1652-3_8

Westland, S., Mason, H., Bano, G., & Rich, P. (2013). Endocrine and radiological abnormalities in empty sella syndrome. Endocrine Abstracts, 1-1. doi:10.1530/endoabs.31.p262

William, N. L. (2014). Diencephalic Syndrome. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, 2, 967-967. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29678-2_1506

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