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Essay Example on Core and Periphery of Canada

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955 words
Boston College
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A core region is an area that constitutes states that are usually characterized by military power, advanced technology, and unified politics and they are usually known for their dominance and exploitation of labor, raw materials and other resources that belong to peripheral areas. A peripheral area, however, is characterized by political instability and poor technology, which make the areas underdeveloped and mainly depend on the core areas for capitalism (Anderson, 1995).

Areas that traditionally were periphery can change to become a core area. For instance, the Lethbridge Calgary Red Deer- Edmonton Corridor in Canada, which majorly emerged due to the development and improvement of the petroleum and natural gas sector (Stadel, 2009). Another good example is Tokyo in Japan whereby there was a major shift from agricultural sector to manufacturing and tertiary sectors and its economy started growing rapidly (Fujita et al., 2004).

Emerging core areas face a number of obstacles while going through transition. An example is inadequate space in the emerging core areas due to overpopulation, which will increase land and housing costs for instance in Japan, whereby as a result the growth rate had declined for a period of time (Fujita et al., 2004). (Stadel, 2009) argues that unfavorable environmental and economic conditions such as drought, flooding and high cost of living will discourage population and economic growth of the area for example, in Canada Prairies. Additionally, stiff competition from the original core areas such as Toronto and Montreal also proves to be an obstacle whereby they have to fight and thrive to establish their source of raw materials. Fluctuation of resources is another obstacle for instance, in the Calgary Edmonton Corridor there was fluctuation of fossil energy resources (Stadel, 2009).

For a peripheral region to become a core area, there has to be some improvements and enhancements in some sectors. For example, a good transport and communication network will lead to development of new suburbs hence creating job opportunities. However, it will also enhance trade therefore improving the economy of the area (Fujita et al., 2004). Another condition is for the area to start utilizing their own resources like natural gas to reduce their rate of dependency on other areas (Stadel, 2009). In addition, advancement of technology will subsequently lead to production of high-quality goods and products at a faster rate hence attracting both internal and external investments (Fujita et al., 2004). Also, improvement of the tourism sector which can be achieved by preserving and conserving the tourist attractions and increasing recreational sites hence attracts tourists around the world. Finally, establishment of high-quality educational institutions will attract students who want to study abroad (Stadel, 2009).

Fault Lines Canada

According to Bone (2014), Canada has a number of fault lines that threatens the cohesiveness of the countrys region, which are English/French, Centralist/Decentralist, Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal and Newcomer/Old-Timers. However, the fault line that has lasted long and still experiencing some source of tension is the one based on language, French and English (Stuart, 2012). Over the past 200 years, the relationship between the Francophone and the Anglophone has been influenced by socioeconomic, political and ideological factors (Beheils, 2006). Currently, the francophone constitutes of about 24% of the population in Canada, which has decreased by 6% since 1900 (Beheils, 2006). This decrease in population has been as a result of decline in the rate of birth as well as the increased non-francophone immigrant population.

Although there has been a decline in the francophone population, Quebec still holds a large percentage of their population in the country. The Quebecois nationalists feel since the birthrate among their community has declined, English-speaking minorities threaten their majority position. Hence it is safe to say that the relationship between the French and English is currently experiencing a strain or tension that has not been felt or seen since 1830 during the Rebellion. However, the structural integration between the French and English has not decreased the amount of division that the individual Francophone and Anglophones have.

Additionally, economic development within Quebec has not led to a reduction of ecological division among Francophone and Anglophone residents. It has neither led to an equal allocation of economic roles which are been allocated depending on the language group (Fenwick 1981). To this day, the French-Canadians are concerned with their status in the country due to the income disparities, their socioeconomic status, and social mobility (Stuart, 2012). Although there is still tension and discussions, it does not compare to how it was 17 years ago and Anglophones are showing their willingness to learn French and vice versa and in addition, the rate of mixed marriages is increasing. Programs have been established to encourage people to learn both of the languages to create some sort of unity. In addition to the programs, both of the languages are used in the Public Broadcasting services, federal public services such as courts, post offices, military, parliament, and also used on packages of consumer products. Nevertheless, according to Fenwick (1981), the tension between the English and French will always be there since it is a part of Canadas cultural and political issue. However, integration between the two languages is needed for a bright and successful future.



Anderson, J. L (1995). Explaining long-term economic change (No. 10). Cambridge University Press.Behiels, M. D. (2012). Francophone-Anglophone Relations. The Canadian Encyclopedia , 42.

Fenwick, R. (1981). Social change and ethnic nationalism: an historical analysis of the separatist movement in Quebec. Comparative Studies in Society and History , 23 (2), 196-216.

Fujita, M., Mori, T., Henderson, J. V., & Kanemoto, Y. (2004). Spatial distribution of economic activities in Japan and China. Handbook of regional and urban economics , 4 , 2911-2977.

Stadel, C. (2009). Core areas and peripheral regions of Canada: Landscapes of contrast and challenge. Estudio de casos sobre planificacion regional. Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain , 13-30.

Stuart, P. (2012). FAULT LINES. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Dec. 2017].


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