Freud is a psychoanalytic theorist who mainly focused more on early childhood, with particular emphasis on biological instinctual urges in the context of human development (Appignanesi & Zarate, 2013). He used to commonly highlight the basic roles played by early childhood experiences and he explained that ones psychological responses and behavior were results of biological instinctual drives. According to the theorist for an intrapsychic conflict, the desire for pleasure and demands for the same start right at the childhood stages. Erickson's theory can be termed as an epigenetic theory, one that focuses on both the biological and genetic points of origin of a certain behavior as it interacts with the immediate external environment forces with time. According to Erickson, the biological unfolding can be related to sociocultural settings in psychosocial development, as determined by the presence or absence of success throughout the stages (Green & Piel, 2016). He emphasized more on the challenges and responsibilities that exist in a persons lifespan as the pathway to understanding what human development entails within a social context.
Adolescence is a stage at which patterns of health-damaging behaviors are perceived and that influence the health of the individual till adulthood (ODonnell, 2013). Physicians will always have a negative attitude towards psychiatric adolescent patients (Front Matter, 2012). The challenges with taking care of psychiatric adolescents can be classified as agitation and suicidality. The Emergency Department (ED) always records an increasing number of adolescents frequently (Pavuluri & Mayanil, 2012: Wilmshurst, 2017). Socially, adolescents experience inadequate social services, lack social support and their disease is not made aware to the public. The economic challenges existing with caring for these patients may include poverty, extra costs for the illness and child care interfering with some occupation in the family. Other challenges may also include psychological and emotional challenges encompassing being stressed by care, communication and having stress account their present and future lives.
Appignanesi, R., & Zarate, O. (2013). Introducing Freud. Thriplow: Icon.
Front Matter. (2012). Pharmacotherapy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders, I-Xx. doi: 10.1002/9781119958338.fmatter
Green, M., & Piel, J. A. (2016). Theories of human development: a comparative approach. New York: Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
ODonnell, A. M. (2013). Educational psychology: child and adolescent development. Place of publication not identified: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Pavuluri, M., & Mayanil, T. (2012). Anticonvulsants Used in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders. Pharmacotherapy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders, 261-299. doi:10.1002/9781119958338.ch12
Wilmshurst, D. L. (2017). Child and adolescent psychopathology: A casebook. S.L.: sage publications.
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